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Table 6 Associations between RF-EMF exposures and having ‘Trouble falling asleep’ (symptom)

From: The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study

Symptom Symptom categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Exposure Exposure categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Adjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Confounders in model
Trouble falling asleep No (165/156) Cordless calls > 10 minutes weekly 0-1 (111/105) 1 1 Time of lights out*+
1 or 2 times weekly (88/85) >1-5 120/114) 1.54 (0.54-2.53) 1.56 (0.93-2.62) Sex
3 or 4 times weekly (39/36) >5-120 (99/95) 1.99 (1.19-3.34)* 1.58 (0.89-2.81) Decile
Most nights (38/37) Times woken in night
Trouble falling asleep No, hardly ever (184/183) Minutes on cordless phone daily 0-4 (147/147) 1 1 Sex* + ♀
1 or 2 times weekly (91/91) 5-15 (106/105) 1.14 (0.77-1.69) 1.00 (0.65-1.54) Decile+
3 or 4 times weekly (36/36) 16-240 (96/96) 1.61 (1.06-2.43) 1.41 (0.89-2.23) Cold/flu
Most nights (38/38)
Trouble falling asleep No, hardly ever (-/175) Cellphone calls >10 minutes weekly 0 (-/267) Model invalid 1 Woken by phone**+
1 or 2 times weekly (-/90) 1-6 (-/63) 0.92 (0.67-1.25) Light out time+
3 or 4 times weekly (-/37) 7-35 (-/12) 1.38 (0.66-2.91) Decile+
Most nights (-/40) Sex + ♀
Trouble falling asleep No, hardly ever (-/179) Cellphone headset No (320) Model invalid 1 Sex** + ♀
1 or 2 times weekly (-/92) Wired (16) 0.41 (0.16-1.08) Light out time*+
3 or more times weekly (-/77) Wireless (12) 1.23 (0.51-2.97) Decile+
Age
       Times woken
  1. Bold font Sig. p < 0.05; *Sig. p ≤ 0.01; **Sig. p ≤ 0.001; + positive association; ♀female; ‘Model invalid’ means it did not meet the criteria outlined in the methods.