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Table 9 Sample relationships of confounding variables and well-being outcomes estimated by unconditional logistic regression

From: The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study

Confounding variable Symptom N OR (95% CI)
Cold/flu in last month Headachea 370 2.50 (1.57- 3.99)
Cold/flu in last month Down/depressedb 369 2.38 (1.04- 5.45)
Cold/flu in last month Tired at schoolb 368 2.07 (1.29- 3.32)
Cold/flu in last month Sore texting thumba 368 2.49 (1.31- 4.75)
Woken by cellphone at least weekly Headacheb 356 4.70 (2.38- 9.29)
Woken by cellphone at least weekly Headachesc 356 5.89 (1.89- 18.30)
Woken by cellphone at least weekly Down/depressedb 355 2.42 (1.14- 5.12)
Woken by cellphone at least weekly Tinnitusb 355 2.46 (1.33- 4.56)
Woken by cellphone at least weekly Tired during schoold 354 3.49 (1.97- 6.2)
SESd Tired during schoola 368  
Low 0.40 (0.18, 0.87)
Mid 0.59 (0.34, 1.01)
High 1
SESd Tinnitusc 368  
Low 1
Medium 0.17 (0.05, 0.57)
High 0.41 (0.15, 1.08)
Sex Trouble falling asleepa 369  
Boys 1
Girls 1.97 (1.29, 3.00)
Sex Wake up in the nighta 369  
Boys 1
Girls 1.57 (1.04, 2.38)
Sex Tired during schoolc 368  
Boys 1
Girls 0.51 (0.30, 0.88)
Time of light out, per minute after 7 pm Trouble falling asleepb 363 1.008 (1.003, 1.012)
Phone location at night Headachea 361  
Another room 1
By bed 1.95 (1.20, 3.15)
Under pillow 0.98 (0.43, 2.22)
Distance from eyes for bed-texting Headachea   0.96 (0.93, 0.99)
  1. aRegular; bFrequent; cChronic; dSocioeconomic status according to school decile grouping.
  2. Each model controls for sex, age, and SES, and is estimated by unconditional logistic regression.