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Table 3 The cumulative cold and hot effects of temperature on cerebrovascular disease death along the lag days, using 4 degrees of freedom natural cubic spline for lag

From: The effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality: an epidemiologic study in four climatic zones in China

Effect type Lag Relative risk (threshold)
Beijing (0.7°C) Tianjin (−0.6°C) Shanghai (26.9°C) Wuhan (25°C) Guangzhou (27.8°C)
Cold effecta Lag 0–2 1.016 (0.973,1.062) 1.006 (0.970,1.043) 1.023 (0.996,1.050) 1.005 (0.992,1.019) 0.991 (0.975,1.007)
  Lag 0–13 1.050 (0.994,1.110) 1.085 (1.033,1.140)* 1.009 (0.971,1.049) 1.029 (1.011,1.048)* 1.027 (1.004,1.052)*
  Lag 0–20 1.070 (1.002,1.141)* 1.072 (1.013,1.136)* 1.011 (0.966,1.058) 1.037 (1.014,1.061)* 1.033 (1.003,1.063)*
Hot effectb Lag 0–2 1.027 (1.005,1.051)* 1.049 (1.011,1.087)* 1.025 (1.004,1.046)* 1.047 (1.022,1.073)* 1.056 (1.000,1.114)
  Lag 0–13 1.044 (1.009,1.081)* 1.012 (0.955,1.072) 0.983 (0.950,1.018) 1.045 (1.006,1.085)* 0.986 (0.909,1.070)
  Lag 0–20 1.062 (1.017,1.109)* 0.996 (0.925,1.073) 0.972 (0.929,1.017) 1.023 (0.978,1.071) 1.014 (0.915,1.123)
  1. *P < 0.05.
  2. aThe relative risk of cerebrovascular death associated with a 1°C temperature decrease below the threshold.
  3. bThe relative risk of cerebrovascular death associated with a 1°C temperature increase above the threshold.