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Table 1 Contribution of different food groups to daily intake and environmental impact in EPIC-NL

From: Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study

Food group Gram/d (%) C02–eq (%) Land use (%)
Potatoes 3.5 1.9 1.2
Vegetables 4.4 5.5 3.6
Legumes 0.3 0.3 0.3
Fruit, nuts and seeds 6.9 5.6 4.4
Dairy    
   Cheese 1.3 11.6 7.7
   Milka 9.4 9.5 6.5
   Milk-based dessertsb 3.5 4.1 2.6
Meat    
   Non-processed meatc 2.5 25.7 28.1
   Processed meatd 1.1 5.6 6.1
Cereals    
   Bread products 5.0 3.4 4.8
   Pasta, rice and couscous 1.6 1.5 2.6
Fish 0.4 2.1 0.8
Egg 0.5 1.2 1.8
Fat 0.9 2.3 5.0
Sugar and confectionary 1.5 2.5 1.7
Cake and biscuits 1.0 2.1 3.6
Beverages    
   Non-alcoholic 48.0 9.4 10.9
   Alcoholic 4.8 3.4 5.1
Condiments and sauces 0.7 0.8 1.2
Soups 2.4 0.6 0.2
Miscellaneous 0.3 2.1 2.0
  1. aconsists of milk, milk beverages (chocolate milk), and coffee milk; bconsists of (fruit)yoghurt, cream desserts, and milk-based puddings; cnon-processed meat: beef, pork, and chicken; dprocessed meat: liver-containing items, ham, and miscellaneous types.