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Table 4 Data for mortality risks according to total land use of usual diet in EPIC-NL

From: Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study

  Land use (m2*year/d) P for linear trend
<2.99 2.99 - 3.61 3.61 – 4.28 >4.28
All-cause mortality      
  No. of participants 8769 8771 8770 8769  
  No. of deaths 741 669 595 558  
  Person-years, median 15.8 15.9 15.8 16.0  
  Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.89 (0.80-0.99) 0.79 (0.71-0.88) 0.74 (0.66-0.82) P < 0.0001d
  Model 1b HR 1 0.99 (0.86-1.15) 0.99 (0.85-1.14) 1.05 (0.89-1.23) P = 0.6190
  Model 2b,c HR 1 0.99 (0.85-1.14) 0.97 (0.82-1.15) 1.03 (0.84-1.25) P = 0.8534
Cause-specific mortality     
Cancer      
  No. of deaths 326 317 282 268  
  Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.97 (0.83-1.13) 0.86 (0.73-1.01) 0.82 (0.69-0.96) P = 0.0057d
  Model 1b HR 1 1.05 (0.86-1.29) 0.99 (0.80-1.22) 1.10 (0.88-1.37) P = 0.5291
CVD      
  No. of deaths 164 151 112 118  
  Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.91 (0.73-1.14) 0.68 (0.53-0.86) 0.71 (0.56-0.90) P = 0.0010d
  Model 1b HR 1 1.03 (0.75-1.41) 0.97 (0.68-1.37) 1.07 (0.75-1.54) P = 0.7666
Respiratory diseases      
  No. of deaths 44 30 34 29  
  Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.68 (0.42-1.07) 0.77 (0.49-1.20) 0.65 (0.41-1.04) P = 0.1086
  Model 1b HR 1 0.81 (0.42-1.56) 0.97 (0.49-1.90) 1.19 (0.58-2.46) P = 0.5950
Other causes      
  No. of deaths 162 133 122 112  
  Crude HRa (95% CI) 1 (REF) 0.81 (0.65-1.02) 0.75 (0.59-0.95) 0.68 (0.54-0.87) P = 0.0016d
  Model 1b HR 1 0.83 (0.60-1.16) 0.98 (0.70-1.36) 0.88 (0.61-1.27) P = 0.6518
  1. aHR: hazard ratio; bCox stratified for age (continuous) and adjusted for sex; cAdditional adjusted for energy intake.
  2. dp value for linear trend significant (p < 0.05).