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Table 2 Epidemiological studies on dietary phthalate exposure

From: Phthalates and diet: a review of the food monitoring and epidemiology data

Author/year (location) Study design Population/sample size Outcome Significant results
     Positive associations/correlations Negative associations/correlations
Dickson-Spillman et al.[50] (Switzerland) Cross-sectional German-Swiss general population (n = 1183) Relationship between diet clusters and calculated internal phthalate exposure DEHP - "fatty, sweet, and ready meal" cluster > all others DEP – "health passive" < all others
  DBP - "fatty, sweet, and ready meal" cluster > all others; "healthy and supplements">"health-passive"  
  BzBP - 'healthy and natural" cluster > all others  
Ji et al.[51] (Korea) Intervention – Quasi experimental Participants in Temple Stay program (n = 25) Influence of strict vegetarian diet on urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations 5-oxo-MEHP - dairy 5-oxo-MEHP (females only) - vegetarian diet
  5-OH-MEHP - dairy 5-OH-MEHP - vegetarian diet
  MEP - vegetarian diet
  MnBP - vegetarian diet
  MiBP - vegetarian diet
Colacino et al.[27] (USA) Cross-sectional 2003-2004 NHANES Association between consumption of various types of foods and urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations MEHP - eggs, poultry MEHHP - fruit
  (n = 2374)    MEOHP - fruit
  MEHHP - poultry MECPP - fruit
  Sum DEHP metabolites - fruit
  MEOHP - poultry MBzP - fruit, tomatoes
  Sum of high molecular weight phthalates - fruit
  MECPP - poultry  
  Sum DEHP metabolites -poultry  
  MCPP - dairy  
  Sum of high molecular weight phthalates - poultry  
  MEP - potatoes, tomatoes, total vegetables, meat  
  MiBP - fish  
  MnMP - fruit  
  Sum of low molecular weight phthlates - tomatoes, total vegetables  
  Total phthalates - total vegetables  
Rudel et al.[52] (San Francisco Bay Area, CA, USA) Intervention – Quasi experimental Families w/two adults and two children Contribution of food packaging to DEHP and BPA exposure through fresh, organic, and plastic-free dietary intervention   MEHP - intervention
  (n = 20)    MEHHP - intervention
  MEOHP – intervention
(no changes in MEP, MBP, MBzP)
Sathyanarayana et al.[53] (Seattle, WA, USA) Intervention –Two-arm, randomized study Families w/two adults and two children Efficacy of fresh, organic and plastic-free dietary intervention to reduce phthalate and BPA exposures MEHP - intervention; dairy, spices  
     MEHHP - intervention; dairy, spices  
  Arm 1 – Intervention (n = 21)   MEOHP - intervention; dairy, spices  
  MECPP - intervention; dairy, spices  
  Arm 2 - Control (n = 19)   Sum DEHP metabolites – intervention; dairy, spices  
  MEP - intervention  
  MBP - intervention  
Trasande et al.[28] (USA) Cross-sectional 2003-2008 NHANES children and adolescents (n = 2743) Association between consumption of various types of foods and urinary phthalate metabolites in children and adolescents MEHP - meat/poultry/fish, caloric intake; poultry MEHP - fruit
      MEHHP - fruit, soy; soy
      MEOHP - fruit, soy; soy
  MECPP - soy
  Sum DEHP metabolites - fruit; soy
  MBzP - fruit
  MCPP - soy
  Sum of high molecular weight phthalates - fruit; non-citrus fruit, soy
  MEP - fruit, grain; fruit
  MiBP - caloric intake
  MBP - caloric intake
  MEHHP - meat/poultry/fish, caloric intake; poultry, discretionary fat Sum of low molecular weight phthalates - fruit, grain; citrus fruit
  MEOHP - meat/poultry/fish, caloric intake; poultry, discretionary fat  
  MECPP - meat/poultry/fish, caloric intake; discretionary fat  
  Sum DEHP metabolite concentrations - meat/poultry/fish, caloric intake; caloric intake, poultry, discretionary solid fat  
  MCPP - meat/poultry/fish; discretionary fat  
  Sum of high molecular weight phthalates - meat/poultry/fish, caloric intake; caloric intake, poultry, discretionary solid fat
  MEP - vegetables  
  MiBP - meat/poultry/fish  
  Sum of low molecular weight phthalates - vegetables