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Table 3 Relative risks (RRs) 1, 2 and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of extreme hot 3 temperatures on daily emergency room visits for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases by comorbid health conditions cumulated over specific lag periods in Toronto, Canada

From: Extreme ambient temperatures and cardiorespiratory emergency room visits: assessing risk by comorbid health conditions in a time series study

Lag period Comorbid medical condition Cardiovascular disease emergency room visits REM4index (95% CI) Respiratory disease emergency room visits REM4index (95% CI)
RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
Lag 0 – 1 day Diabetes 1.13 1.01 – 1.26 1.12 (1.01 – 1.27) 1.04 0.89 – 1.22 1.00 (0.85 – 1.18)
Respiratory diseases 0.92 0.68 – 1.23 0.90 (0.67 – 1.22) 1.22 1.01 – 1.46 1.17 (1.02 – 1.44)
Respiratory infections 0.56 0.17 – 1.88 0.55 (0.19 – 2.10) 0.95 0.82 – 1.11 0.91 (0.78 – 1.07)
Hypertension 1.05 0.88 – 1.25 1.03 (0.86 – 1.23) 1.12 0.82 – 1.53 1.08 (0.79 – 1.48)
Cancer 0.89 0.60 – 1.32 0.87 (0.59 – 1.30) 1.25 1.04 – 1.50 1.20 (1.02 – 1.49)
Kidney diseases 1.14 0.82 – 1.58 1.12 (0.81 – 1.57) 1.15 0.77 – 1.71 1.11 (0.75 – 1.67)
Pneumonia 0.91 0.62 – 1.33 0.89 (0.61 – 1.31) 1.09 0.90 – 1.32 1.05 (0.86 – 1.28)
Cardiac diseases 0.98 0.86 – 1.12 0.96 (0.84 – 1.10) 1.10 0.91 – 1.33 1.06 (0.87 – 1.29)
Lag 0 – 13 days Diabetes 1.08 0.74 – 1.64 1.05 (0.69 – 1.59) 0.85 0.47 – 1.52 0.75 (0.42 – 1.38)
Respiratory diseases 1.09 0.38 – 3.10 1.06 (0.37 – 3.05) 1.42 0.83 – 2.42 1.27 (0.78 – 2.33)
Respiratory infections N.E. - - 0.95 0.64 – 1.43 0.84 (0.55 – 1.27)
Hypertension 1.26 0.75 – 2.11 1.22 (0.74 – 2.14) 1.03 0.32 – 3.33 0.92 (0.28 – 2.97)
Cancer 1.44 0.46 – 4.54 1.40 (0.48 – 4.76) 1.00 0.35 – 2.89 0.88 (0.30 – 2.54)
Kidney diseases 0.85 0.32 – 2.25 0.82 (0.31 – 2.21) 0.66 0.15 – 2.94 0.58 (0.14 – 2.78)
Pneumonia 1.82 0.63 – 5.32 1.77 (0.75 – 6.44) 1.00 0.49 – 2.07 0.89 (0.42 – 1.82)
Cardiac diseases 0.92 0.63 – 1.33 0.89 (0.61 – 1.33) 0.92 0.47 – 1.80 0.81 (0.41 – 1.60)
  1. 1. RRs were adjusted for seasonal effects and long term trends, day-of-the-week, relative humidity, daily number of ER visits for influenza (only in the respiratory disease models), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3).
  2. 2. RRs represent the relative increase in emergency room visits for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for persons with a pre-existing medical condition.
  3. 3. Hot temperature effects represent the comparison in daily counts of emergency room visits for the 99th percentile of temperature (28.4°C) compared to the 75th percentile of temperature (18.2°C).
  4. 4. Relative effect modification.
  5. †Statistically significant results are in bold font.
  6. N.E. (non-estimable).