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Table 2 Adjusted change in cortisol area under the curve (AUC) according to blood, tibia, and patella Pb concentrations in Mexico City women (2007–2011)

From: Relationships between lead biomarkers and diurnal salivary cortisol indices in pregnant women from Mexico City: a cross-sectional study

Pb biomarker/quantile N GM salivary cortisol AUC (nmol-hours) % Difference in cortisol AUC nmol-hours (95% CI)
Blood Pb 1    
Quintile 1 (0- < 1.8 µg/dL) 185 82.0 Ref
Quintile 2 (1.8- < 2.4 µg/dL) 183 88.6 8 (−1, 18)
Quintile 3 (2.4- < 3.4 µg/dL) 184 89.8 9 (0, 19)
Quintile 4 (3.4- < 5.1 µg/dL) 182 88.8 8 (−1, 18)
Quintile 5 (≥5.1 µg/dL) 184 83.8 2 (−6, 12)
Continuous, per 2.5 µg/dL 918   −1 (−4, 1)
Tibia Pb 2    
Quantile 1 (<2 µg/g) 266 87.8 Ref
Quantile 2 (2- < 4.3 µg/g) 82 83.2 −5 (−14, 5)
Quantile 3 (4.3- < 6.7 µg/g) 82 89.3 2 (−8, 13)
Quantile 4 (6.7- < 11.1 µg/g) 82 87.5 0 (−10, 10)
Quantile 5 (≥11.1 µg/g) 82 93.4 6 (−4, 18)
Patella Pb 2    
Quantile 1 (<2 µg/g) 241 86.6 Ref
Quantile 2 (2- < 4.5 µg/g) 86 87.6 1 (−8, 12)
Quantile 3 (4.5- < 7.8 µg/g) 87 81.8 −6 (−14, 4)
Quantile 4 (7.8- < 12.7 µg/g) 86 97.0 12 (1, 24)
Quantile 5 (>12.7-43.2 µg/g) 87 90.3 4 (−6, 16)
  1. GM: Geometric Mean, AUC: Area Under the Curve.
  2. 1-Adjusted for maternal age (continuous years), education (continuous years), body mass index (continuous), marital status (married, free union, or single/separated/divorced), gestational age at time of cortisol collection (continuous weeks), parity (1, 2, 3, or 4+), and maternal smoking status during pregnancy (never, former, or current).
  3. 2-Adjusted for above covariates and maternal calf circumference at 1-month postpartum.