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Table 1 Study population characteristics across gender and racial/ethnic groups, NHANES 2001-2008

From: Gender and racial/ethnic differences in the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with markers of diabetes risk: national health and nutrition examination survey 2001–2008

  Gender Race/ethnicity
  Men (n = 1620) Women (n = 1463) White (n = 1362) Black (n = 719) Mexican-American (n = 726) Other (n = 276)
  Median (interquartile range)
Phthalate metabolites*       
MEP 125.3 181.9 122.3 190.4 186.7 141.8
(57.8, 340.9) (89.0, 425.6) (55.0, 325.7) (88.2, 428.1) (86.6, 446.4) (64.0, 346.6)
MBzP 10.4 13.4 11.5 13.1 11.0 12.0
(5.4, 19.5) (7.1, 23.8) (6.0, 20.9) (7.2, 23.6) (5.5, 20.4) (6.1, 23.3)
MnBP 13.6 22.3 16.0 18.4 17.4 19.6
(8.7, 22.3) (13.2, 35.9) (9.6, 26.3) (11.2, 28.6) (10.5, 29.9) (12.0, 32.6)
MiBP 3.8 4.9 3.5 5.0 4.6 6.4
(2.0, 6.6) (2.6, 8.9) (1.8, 6.1) (2.8, 8.8) (2.4, 8.0) (3.3, 11.0)
MCPP 2.0 2.3 2.3 1.9 2.2 2.1
(1.2, 3.3) (1.4, 4.0) (1.4, 3.9) (1.1, 3.2) (1.3, 3.7) (1.3, 3.9)
∑DEHP 9.5 11.5 10.2 11.4 9.8 11.4
(5.3, 19.7) (6.5, 23.1) (5.7, 22.6) (5.8, 23.2) (5.8, 17.8) (7.1, 22.3)
Markers of diabetes risk       
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 96.9 93.0 96.0 92.0 95.7 95.0
(91.0, 104.0) (88.0, 100.0) (90.1, 103.2) (87.0, 99.0) (90.7, 102.0) (90.0, 102.0)
Fasting insulin (uU/mL) 9.3 9.9 8.6 10.4 10.8 8.9
(6.0, 14.4) (6.4, 15.2) (5.6, 13.2) (6.5, 17.1) (7.1, 16.3) (5.9, 13.9)
HOMA-IR 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.1
(1.4, 3.6) (1.4, 3.7) (1.3, 3.3) (1.4, 4.0) (1.7, 4.0) (1.4, 3.3)
Selected covariates       
Age (yrs) 33 34 42 24 25 32
(18, 52) (18, 51) (23, 59) (16, 46) (16, 44) (18, 49)
BMI (kg/m2)** 26.0 26.5 26.1 26.0 26.4 25.6
(22.2, 29.8) (22.1, 31.6) (22.6, 30.3) (21.8, 31.8) (22.1, 30.3) (21.7, 29.2)
Total caloric intake (kcal) 2399 1720 2101 1972 2028 1903
(1845, 3099) (1342, 2187) (1591, 2764) (1459, 2680) (1546, 2614) (1401, 2617)
Creatinine (mg/dL) 147 116 125 165.0 124.0 132
(103, 208) (72, 173) (75, 176) (110, 234) (84, 175) (89, 185)
  1. *Creatinine-adjusted phthalates: μg/g creatinine for MEP, MBzP, MnBP, MiBP and MCPP; μmol/100 g creatinine for ∑DEHP.
  2. **Number of subjects for BMI is slightly different due to missing values: male (1607), female (1447); white (1352), black (710), Mexican-American (710), other (271).