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Table 2 Association between potential confounders and ASD case status using Conditional Logistic Regression (CLR) (218 children, 109 matched-pairs)

From: Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders

Variables Category ASD Case TD Control Matched OR 95% CI for MOR† P-value
N (%) N (%) (MOR)
Paternal agea More than 35 years 53 (50.5) 29 (29.0) 2.54 (1.34, 4.82) <0.01
(at child’s birth)
Maternal ageb More than 35 years 28 (25.7) 11 (10.6) 3.13 (1.41, 6.93) <0.01
(at child’s birth)
Parental education levelsc At least one of the parents had education beyond high school 71 (67.0) 32 (31.4) 3.36 (1.85, 6.10) <0.01
(at child’s birth)
Source of drinking waterd Piped water 103 (94.5) 104 (96.3) 0.60 (0.22, 1.65) 0.32
Source of water for cookinge Piped water 103 (94.5) 103 (95.4) 0.83 (0.25, 2.73) 0.76
Fruits and vegetables consumptionf Root vegetables A. Yam, sweet potato, or dasheen 78 (71.6) 89 (82.4) 0.52 (0.27, 1.02) 0.06
B. Carrot or pumpkin 94 (86.2) 106 (98.1) 0.14 (0.03, 0.63) 0.01
Leafy vegetables A. Lettuce 51 (46.8) 67 (62.0) 0.59 (0.35,0.99) 0.04
B. Callaloo, broccoli, or pakchoi 79 (71.6) 101 (93.5) 0.23 (0.10, 0.51) < 0.01
C. Cabbage 73 (67.0) 101 (93.5) 0.19 (0.09, 0.44) < 0.01
Legumes String beans 36 (33.0) 45 (41.7) 0.71 (0.42, 1.20) 0.19
Fruits Tomatoes 66 (60.6) 90 (83.3) 0.29 (0.14, 0.58) < 0.01
Ackee 64 (58.7) 100 (92.6) 0.05 (0.01, 0.22) < 0.01
Avocado 30 (27.5) 73 (67.6) 0.17 (0.08, 0.35) < 0.01
Green banana 74 (67.9) 98 (90.7) 0.29 (0.14, 0.58) < 0.01
Fried plantains 78 (71.6) 96 (88.9) 0.20 (0.08, 0.52) <0.01
Seafood consumption High seafood consumption 27 (24.8) 48 (44.0) 0.38 (0.20, 0.72) < 0.01
(More than 6 meals per week)
Ate saltwater fish 83 (76.1) 98 (89.9) 0.35 (0.16, 0.78) 0.01
Ate fresh water fish (Pond fish, tilapia) 47 (43.1) 60 (55.0) 0.58 (0.33, 1.04) 0.07
Ate sardine, mackerel (Canned fish) 82 (75.2) 100 (91.7) 0.28 (0.12, 0.65) <0.01
Ate tuna (Canned fish) 34 (31.2) 48 (44.0) 0.53 (0.29, 0.98) 0.04
Ate salt fish (Pickled mackerel) 76 (69.7) 99 (90.8) 0.21 (0.09, 0.50) < 0.01
Ate shellfish (Lobsters, crabs) 6 (5.5) 14 (12.8) 0.33 (0.11, 1.03) 0.20
Ate shrimp 21 (19.3) 30 (27.5) 0.61 (0.31, 1.18) 0.14
Grains consumed Riceg 106 (97.2) 108 (100) NR* NR* 0.99
Fried dumpling 85 (78.0) 101 (92.7) 0.27 (0.11, 0.67) < 0.01
Boiled dumpling 80 (73.4) 107 (98.2) 0.07 (0.02, 0.29) < 0.01
White bread 54 (49.5) 84 (77.1) 0.30 (0.16, 0.57) <0.01
Whole wheat bread 81 (74.3) 67 (61.5) 1.74 (0.99, 3.10) 0.06
Cakes/bunsh 91 (83.5) 106 (98.1) 0.11 (0.03, 0.48) <0.01
Porridge, like cornmeal, oatmeali 91 (83.5) 105 (97.2) 0.12 (0.03, 0.51) <0.01
Cerealj 80 (73.4) 100 (92.6) 0.28 (0.13, 0.60) <0.01
  1. *NR = Not reported because all children in the TD control group reported eating rice.
  2. If a 95% CI for the MOR does not include one, then we conclude a significant association at 5% level.
  3. aPaternal age was missing for 4 cases and 9 controls.
  4. bMaternal age was missing for 5 controls.
  5. cParental education levels were missing for 3 cases and 7 controls.
  6. dSource of drinking water was missing for 1 control.
  7. eSource of water for cooking was missing for 1 control.
  8. fFruits and vegetables consumption was missing for 1 control.
  9. gRice consumption was missing for 1 control.
  10. hCakes/buns consumption was missing for 1 control.
  11. iPorridge consumption was missing for 1 control.
  12. jCereal consumption was missing for 1 control.