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Table 2 METS blood metals concentrations, overall and by site location

From: Distribution of metals exposure and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study”

  Selected percentiles  
  N GM (95% CI) % < LOD* Minimum** 25th (95% CI) 50th (95% CI) 75th (95% CI) Maximum
Overall             
Lead (μg/dL) 150 1.55 (1.30, 1.85) 0.7 0.001 0.97 (0.76, 1.09) 1.66 (1.34, 1.93) 2.60 (2.25, 2.98) 31.82
Cadmium (μg/L) 150 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) 62.7 0.000004 0.004 (0.003, 0.005) 0.008 (0.007, 0.009) 0.83 (0.29, 1.08) 3.08
Arsenic (μg/L) 150 8.23 (7.50, 9.02) 0.0 2.51 4.92 (4.57, 5.87) 8.48 (7.62, 10.07) 12.76 (11.59, 14.99) 26.85
Mercury (μg/L) 150 0.85 (0.52, 1.37) 15.3 0.001 0.22 (0.07, 0.51) 1.49 (1.01, 2.23) 5.31 (3.42, 15.38) 70.36
U.S.A.             
Lead (μg/dL) 30 0.80 (0.61, 1.05) 0.0 0.22 0.44 (0.36, 0.68) 0.74 (0.47, 1.14) 1.28 (0.95, 1.89) 6.05
Cadmium (μg/L) 30 0.15 (0.07, 0.31) 26.7 0.005 0.009 (0.006, 0.20) 0.29 (0.14, 0.60) 0.83 (0.36, 1.03) 1.21
Arsenic (μg/L) 30 3.97 (3.62, 4.35) 0.0 2.61 3.33 (3.02, 3.55) 3.83 (3.42, 4.56) 4.72 (3.94, 5.24) 8.47
Mercury (μg/L) 30 0.07 (0.03, 0.20) 33.3 0.001 0.007 (0.002, 0.07) 0.15 (0.01, 0.36) 0.69 (0.22, 1.22) 24.46
South Africa             
Lead (μg/dL) 30 1.45 (1.22, 1.74) 0.0 0.58 0.99 (0.82, 1.23) 1.42 (1.16, 1.86) 1.99 (1.71, 2.74) 3.79
Cadmium (μg/L) 30 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 93.3 0.000004 0.002 (0.0006, 0.003) 0.004 (0.003, 0.007) 0.008 (0.005, 0.01) 1.10
Arsenic (μg/L) 30 5.65 (5.18, 6.16) 0.0 3.98 4.71 (4.32, 5.11) 5.43 (4.81, 6.52) 6.88 (5.84, 7.71) 9.52
Mercury (μg/L) 30 0.05 (0.02, 0.15) 40.0 0.001 0.005 (0.001, 0.03) 0.09 (0.01, 0.33) 0.47 (0.15, 0.97) 35.10
Ghana             
Lead (μg/dL) 30 3.12 (1.53, 6.38) 3.3 0.001 2.02 (1.35, 2.79) 2.96 (2.14, 3.96) 5.90 (3.59, 25.97) 31.82
Cadmium (μg/L) 30 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 100.0 0.00003 0.004 (0.001, 0.005) 0.006 (0.004, 0.007) 0.008 (0.006, 0.009) 0.01
Arsenic (μg/L) 30 11.17 (9.69, 12.87) 0.0 2.51 10.30 (7.47, 11.11) 11.68 (10.46, 12.57) 14.00 (12.31, 15.61) 20.70
Mercury (μg/L) 30 1.56 (1.01, 2.42) 3.3 0.009 1.08 (0.73, 1.42) 1.87 (1.33, 2.29) 2.93 (2.14, 4.13) 11.25
Jamaica             
Lead (μg/dL) 30 0.96 (0.77, 1.19) 0.0 0.25 0.69 (0.44, 0.95) 1.01 (0.77, 1.24) 1.39 (1.06, 2.01) 2.57
Cadmium (μg/L) 30 0.01 (0.00, 0.04) 76.7 0.0002 0.004 (0.001, 0.004) 0.005 (0.00, 0.01) 0.17 (0.01, 1.10) 3.08
Arsenic (μg/L) 30 9.24 (8.37, 10.19) 0.0 6.35 7.89 (6.99, 8.49) 8.61 (8.09, 9.65) 10.23 (8.97, 14.20) 19.02
Mercury (μg/L) 30 2.43 (1.82, 3.25) 0.0 0.22 1.66 (0.82, 2.40) 2.54 (2.19, 3.60) 3.84 (3.39, 6.41) 8.33
Seychelles             
Lead (μg/dL) 30 2.56 (2.26, 2.90) 0.0 1.46 1.96 (1.72, 2.43) 2.49 (2.21, 2.80) 3.23 (2.60, 3.92) 6.71
Cadmium (μg/L) 30 0.47 (0.21, 1.06) 16.7 0.001 1.04 (0.01, 1.15) 1.17 (1.11, 1.22) 1.27 (1.19, 1.42) 1.56
Arsenic (μg/L) 30 16.29 (14.93, 17.77) 0.0 10.55 13.98 (11.93, 15.56) 16.38 (14.40, 17.05) 18.59 (16.59, 23.10) 26.85
Mercury (μg/L) 30 28.47 (23.03, 35.18) 0.0 9.20 18.16 (13.70, 24.45) 28.34 (22.34, 39.19) 48.58 (31.77, 60.84) 70.36
  1. *Limits of detection (ng/ml): Lead (0.01); Cadmium (0.01); Arsenic (0.02); Mercury (0.0015).
  2. **For levels less than LOD: substituted a random number between 0 and LOD (according to uniform distribution).