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Table 1 Selected maternal characteristics of birth defect cases and controls, Texas Birth Defects Registry, 1996-2008

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Characteristic Controls (n = 280764) Neural tube defects (n = 3245) Limbs deficiencies (n = 2406) Oral cleft defects (n = 7416) Heart defects (n = 60154)
n % n % n % n % n %
Race-ethnicity           
  Non-Hispanic white 93425 33.3 956 31.7 890 38.3 2831 39.0 20434 34.2
  Non-Hispanic black 27119 9.7 246 8.1 257 11.1 542 7.5 6144 10.3
  Hispanic 150334 53.6 1749 58.0 1114 48.0 3617 49.8 31441 52.7
  Others, non-Hispanic 9510 3.4 66 2.2 61 2.6 277 3.8 1670 2.8
  Missing 376   228   84   149   465  
Education           
  < High school 91641 32.9 998 39.2 732 32.9 2424 34.2 19523 33.1
  High school 82138 29.5 785 30.9 691 31.0 2176 30.7 17448 29.5
  >High school 104427 37.5 760 29.9 804 36.1 2481 35.0 22059 37.4
  Missing 2558   702   179   335   1124  
Age at delivery (years)           
  11-19 41376 14.7 462 15.2 379 16.3 1063 14.6 7973 13.3
  20-24 79641 28.4 860 28.3 647 27.8 2014 27.7 15433 25.8
  25-29 74994 26.7 823 27.1 609 26.2 1915 26.3 15145 25.3
  30-34 55326 19.7 579 19.0 438 18.8 1378 18.9 12050 20.2
  35-39 24487 8.7 248 8.2 184 7.9 689 9.5 6977 11.7
  >39 4912 1.8 68 2.2 68 2.9 216 3.0 2193 3.7
  Missing 28   205   81   141   383  
Public health service region           
  1 9368 3.3 93 3.0 91 3.9 296 4.1 1957 3.3
  2 5864 2.1 70 2.3 44 1.9 199 2.7 1219 2.0
  3 76992 27.4 921 30.2 730 31.4 2092 28.7 16117 27.0
  4 7080 2.5 106 3.5 82 3.5 285 3.9 1351 2.3
  5 4640 1.7 48 1.6 48 2.1 161 2.2 950 1.6
  6 50124 17.9 532 17.5 390 16.8 1395 19.2 10557 17.7
  7 22544 8.0 259 8.5 230 9.9 723 9.9 4594 7.7
  8 28740 10.2 314 10.3 296 12.7 778 10.7 6053 10.1
  9 6932 2.5 84 2.8 60 2.6 202 2.8 1441 2.4
  10 8576 3.1 131 4.3 84 3.6 309 4.3 1702 2.8
  11 59904 21.3 487 16.0 272 11.7 839 11.5 13838 23.1
  Missing -   200   79   137   375  
Year of birth           
  1996 6964 2.5 125 4.1 61 2.6 181 2.5 1444 2.4
  1997 12648 4.5 170 5.6 102 4.4 355 4.9 2659 4.5
  1998 16468 5.9 222 7.3 153 6.6 476 6.5 3398 5.7
  1999 19096 6.8 287 9.4 186 8.0 575 7.9 3866 6.5
  2000 20040 7.1 257 8.4 186 8.0 616 8.5 4092 6.9
  2001 20588 7.3 232 7.6 204 8.8 605 8.3 4243 7.1
  2002 21580 7.7 226 7.4 192 8.3 574 7.9 4566 7.6
  2003 22980 8.2 232 7.6 192 8.3 579 8.0 4927 8.2
  2004 25428 9.1 264 8.7 183 7.9 646 8.9 5468 9.2
  2005 27464 9.8 248 8.1 211 9.1 672 9.2 5981 10.0
  2006 27548 9.8 248 8.1 213 9.2 648 8.9 6004 10.0
  2007 28828 10.3 266 8.7 228 9.8 665 9.1 6286 10.5
  2008 31132 11.1 269 8.8 216 9.3 688 9.4 6846 11.4
  Missing - - 199   79   136   374  
Smokinga           
  No 230492 94.5 2061 94.9 1802 92.5 5684 92.2 48978 94.1
  Yes 13338 5.5 111 5.1 145 7.5 479 7.8 3061 5.9
  Missing 36934   1073   459   1253   8115  
Geocode accuracy           
  9-Digit Zip 684 0.2 4 0.1 3 0.1 18 0.2 135 0.2
  Manual 299 0.1 19 0.6 4 0.2 17 0.2 55 0.1
  Street 244927 87.2 2241 69.1 2018 83.9 6282 84.7 52591 87.4
  Zip 5955 2.1 42 1.3 39 1.6 156 2.1 1133 1.9
  Not Geocoded 28899 10.3 267 8.2 197 8.2 686 9.3 5737 9.5
  Missing - - 672 20.7 145 6.0 257 3.5 503 0.8
  1. aAnytime during pregnancy.