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Table 9 Maternal residential proximity to air emissions of chlorinated solvents and birth defects by maternal age

From: Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study

Type of chlorinated solvent Birth defect group Number (%) with residential exposure risk value >0, adjusted odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI)
   Maternal age group
   < 35 years 35 years or older
   Number (%) ORa (95% CI) Number (%) ORa (95% CI)
Any chlorinated solvent Control births 56735 (26.2) ˗ ˗ 6864 (26.3) ˗ ˗
Any type of oral cleft defect 1478 (27.3) 0.99 (0.92, 1.06) 240 (30.6) 1.22 (1.03, 1.46)b
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 934 (26.7) 0.97 (0.89, 1.06) 161 (33.0) 1.37 (1.10, 1.70)b,c
Obstructive heart defects 767 (26.2) 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 145 (31.0) 1.27 (1.01, 1.58)b,c
Carbon tetrachloride Control births 4195 (1.9) ˗ ˗ 373 (1.4) ˗ ˗
Any type of neural tube defect 52 (2.6) 1.31 (0.98, 1.75) 10 (4.7) 2.46 (1.23, 4.91)b,c
Spina bifida 37 (3.2) 1.46 (1.03, 2.07) 7 (4.9) 2.49 (1.09, 5.72)b
Any type of oral cleft defect 122 (2.3) 1.02 (0.85, 1.24) 21 (2.7) 1.66 (1.04, 2.65)b,c
Cleft palate alone 47 (2.4) 1.05 (0.77, 1.42) 8 (2.7) 1.76 (0.84, 3.72)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 75 (2.1) 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) 13 (2.7) 1.59 (0.88, 2.86)
Chloroform Control births 3662 (1.7) ˗ ˗ 323 (1.2) ˗ ˗
Any type of neural tube defect 45 (2.3) 1.33 (0.97, 1.81) 7 (3.3) 2.09 (0.93, 4.68)
Spina bifida 32 (2.7) 1.48 (1.02, 2.14) 5 (3.5) 2.16 (0.82, 5.67)
1,1-dichloroethane Control births 1704 (0.8) ˗ ˗ 143 (0.5) ˗ ˗
Any type of oral cleft defect 40 (0.7) 0.85 (0.62, 1.17) 7 (0.9) 1.49 (0.69, 3.25)
1,2-dichloroethane Control births 6033 (2.8) ˗ ˗ 604 (2.3) ˗ ˗
Any type of neural tube defect 78 (4.0) 1.31 (1.02, 1.69) 7 (3.3) 0.98 (0.44, 2.16)
Spina bifida 60 (5.1) 1.70 (1.27, 2.28) 5 (3.5) 1.09 (0.42, 2.80)
Any type of oral cleft defect 168 (3.1) 0.98 (0.83, 1.16) 29 (3.7) 1.50 (1.00, 2.26)b
Cleft palate alone 64 3.3 1.00 (0.77, 1.31) 13 (4.3) 1.93 (1.05, 3.54)b
1,2-dichloroethylene Control births 1862 (0.9) ˗ ˗ 164 (0.6) ˗ ˗
Any type of oral cleft defect 45 (0.8) 0.87 (0.64, 1.17) 9 (1.1) 1.65 (0.83, 3.30)
Cleft palate alone 15 (0.8) 0.75 (0.45, 1.26) 5 (1.7) 2.54 (1.00, 6.43)b,c
Ethyl chloride Control births 4820 (2.2) ˗ ˗ 451 (1.7) ˗ ˗
Any type of neural tube defect 62 (3.2) 1.36 (1.04, 1.77) 8 (3.7) 1.75 (0.83, 3.68)
Spina bifida 43 (3.7) 1.48 (1.08, 2.05) 7 (4.9) 2.50 (1.11, 5.63)
Any type of oral cleft defect 144 (2.7) 1.05 (0.88, 1.25) 24 (3.1) 1.66 (1.07, 2.56)b
Cleft palate alone 52 (2.7) 1.01 (0.76, 1.34) 8 (2.7) 1.41 (0.68, 2.94)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 92 (2.6) 1.08 (0.87, 1.34) 16 (3.3) 1.81 (1.06, 3.07)b
Any type of heart defect 1065 (2.4) 1.14 (1.07, 1.23) 143 (1.8) 0.99 (0.81, 1.20)
Atrioventricular septal defect 43 (3.8) 1.39 (1.01, 1.91) 4 (1.0) 0.58 (0.21, 1.59)c
Obstructive heart defect 92 (3.1) 1.29 (1.04, 1.61) 6 (1.3) 0.63 (0.28, 1.44)
Septal heart defect 883 (2.4) 1.14 (1.06, 1.23) 119 (1.8) 0.98 (0.79, 1.20)
Methylene chloride Control births 34553 (16.0) ˗ ˗ 3895 (14.0) ˗ ˗
Any type of oral cleft defect 942 (17.4) 1.02 (0.94, 1.10) 158 (20.2) 1.38 (1.14, 1.67)b,c
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 603 (17.3) 1.02 (0.92, 1.12) 107 (21.9) 1.53 (1.21, 1.93)b,c
Tetrachloroethane Control births 1801 (0.8) ˗ ˗ 154 (0.6) ˗ ˗
Any type of oral cleft defect 41 (0.8) 0.85 (0.62, 1.16) 8 (1.0) 1.63 (0.79, 3.39)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 24 (0.7) 0.79 (0.53, 1.20) 5 (1.0) 1.57 (0.63, 3.93)
1,1,2-trichloroethane Control births 2354 (1.1) ˗ ˗ 207 (0.8) ˗ ˗
Any type of oral cleft defect 70 (1.3) 1.06 (0.83, 1.35) 12 (1.5) 1.78 (0.97, 3.25)
Cleft palate alone 26 (1.4) 1.03 (0.69, 1.53) 5 (1.7) 2.06 (0.82, 5.19)
Trichloroethylene Control births 25432 (11.8) ˗ ˗ 3124 (12.0) ˗ ˗
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 439 (12.6) 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 78 (16.0) 1.39 (1.06, 1.83)b,c
Any type of heart defect 5067 (11.6) 1.04 (1.00, 1.07) 1025 (12.6) 1.13 (1.04, 1.22)
Obstructive heart defects 338 (11.6) 0.97 (0.86, 1.10) 74 (15.8) 1.43 (1.08, 1.88)b,c
Septal heart defects 4217 (11.7) 1.04 (1.01, 1.08) 857 (12.7) 1.13 (1.03, 1.23)
1,2,3-trichloropropane Control births 2602 (1.2) ˗ ˗ 241 (0.9) ˗ ˗
  Any type of oral cleft defect 83 (1.5) 1.12 (0.90, 1.41) 15 (1.9) 1.92 (1.11, 3.32)b
  Cleft palate alone 34 (1.8) 1.22 (0.86, 1.74) 6 (2.0) 2.11 (0.90, 4.94)
  Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 49 (1.4) 1.07 (0.79, 1.43) 9 (1.8) 1.80 (0.90, 3.60)
  1. aOdds ratios adjusted for year of birth and maternal education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence.
  2. bStatistically significant additive interaction by maternal age group.
  3. cStatistically significant multiplicative interaction by maternal age group.