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Table 4 Preterm birth and average VOC exposure, entire pregnancy, Camp Lejeune, 1968-1985

From: Evaluation of contaminated drinking water and preterm birth, small for gestational age, and birth weight at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: a cross-sectional study

Exposure Preterm birth OR* (95% CI) p value
No #, % Yes #, %
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)     
No exposure 3453, 31.4 269, 29.7 1.0 (ref.)  
>0- < 35.8 ppb 3763, 34.2 326, 36.0 1.0 (0.9-1.2) 0.67
≥35.8- < 52.7 ppb 1895, 17.2 144, 15.9 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 0.32
≥52.7- < 81.4 ppb 1148, 10.4 81, 8.9 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.09
≥ 81.4 ppb 731, 6.7 86, 9.5 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 0.08
Trichloroethylene (TCE)     
No exposure 1979, 18.0 150, 16.6 1.0 (ref.)  
>0- < 1.7 ppb 4599, 41.8 383, 42.3 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 0.35
≥1.7- < 3.2 ppb 2209, 20.1 174, 19.2 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 0.74
≥3.2- < 9.8 ppb 1304, 11.9 124, 13.7 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 0.07
≥ 9.8 ppb 899, 8.2 75, 8.3 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 0.51
Benzene     
No exposure 7820, 71.2 643, 71.0 1.0 (ref.)  
>0- < 1.0 ppb 2474, 22.5 217, 24.0 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 0.43
≥ 1.0 ppb 696, 6.3 46, 5.0 0.8 (0.6-1.1) 0.17
  1. *PCE was adjusted for mother’s race.