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Table 1 Exclusion criteria used to identify at-risk population*

From: A longitudinal study of adult-onset asthma incidence among HMO members

  Description ICD-9 (CPT) Codes
1 Heart Failure 428–428.9
2 Bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema 490–492.8
3 Pulmonary hypertension, embolism and other pulmonary heart disease 415–416.9
4 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 496
5 ER visit or hospital admission for primary asthma diagnosis 493–493.91
6 Occupational asthma diagnosis 504–507, 495.8, 507.8
7 Asthma diagnosis AND outpatient nebulization treatment 493–493.91 AND (94640)
8 Ordered second line asthma medications  
9 Any asthma diagnosis AND ordered oral steroids 493–493.91
10 Asthma diagnosis AND ordered 4 or more MDIs 493–493.91
  1. * Exclusion criteria were applied to records for the 12 months preceding the index month. International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition and Current Procedural Terminology codes; Second line medications included cromolyn, necrodomyl, aerosolized steroids, theophylline, oral or nebulized Beta-agonists, and leukotriene inhibitors; MDI= Beta-agonist metered dose inhaler.