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Table 8 Odds ratios for exposure to agricultural chemicals compared non – exposure

From: Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

Chemical Odds Ratio 95% CI
Chemicals (any) 7.18 3.99 – 13.25
Organophosphate 7.84 5.78 – 12.63
Pesticide 6.00 2.75 – 13.49
Blue death 9.11 4.95 – 17.88
Insecticide 4.11 0.48 – 35.10
Fertilizer 1.03 0.05 – 7.19
  1. Blue death", is a mixture of three different chemicals, carbaryl, carbufuran and camphechlor (although campechlor has been banned in South Africa since 1970. Department of Agriculture 1999.)