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Table 1 Univariate analyses for acute chemical releases involving victims, by type of event.

From: Risk factors for acute chemical releases with public health consequences: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance in the U.S., 1996–2001

Variable Fixed Facilities Transportation
  No. % with victims POR (95% CI) No. % with victims POR (95% CI)
Time of day       
   0000–0559 4117 4.3 referent 1205 9.8 referent
   0600–1159 10104 7.4 1.78 (1.51–2.11) 3011 9.2 0.94 (0.75–1.18)
   1200–1759 9289 7.9 1.90 (1.61–2.25) 2539 8.7 0.87 (0.69–1.11)
   1800–2359 5069 7.4 1.78 (1.48–2.14) 1171 8.8 0.89 (0.67–1.17)
Day of week       
   Weekend 5765 7.0 referent 1226 7.0 referent
   Weekday 24209 8.0 1.16 (1.03–1.29) 7998 8.4 1.22 (0.97–1.54)
Season       
   Dec.-Feb. 6643 7.3 referent 1631 8.3 referent
   Mar.-May 7988 7.9 1.08 (0.96–1.23) 2812 7.4 0.88 (0.70–1.10)
   Jun.-Aug. 8480 8.1 1.11 (0.99–1.26) 2794 8.9 1.08 (0.87–1.35)
   Sep.-Nov. 6863 7.7 1.07 (0.94–1.21) 1987 8.5 1.02 (0.81–1.30)
Area*       
   Industrial 18936 5.6 0.59 (0.45–0.77) 2547 12.7 0.20 (0.15–0.27)
   Commercial 5336 3.4 3.49 (2.67–4.57) 3385 2.9 0.46 (0.36–0.59)
   Residential 2097 17.3 1.68 (1.53–1.85) 612 6.3 1.08 (0.98–1.19)
   Agricultural 2253 22.1 1.70 (1.27–2.29) 1628 15.5 1.29 (1.02–1.64)
   Other 1064 9.2 referent 903 15.9 referent
Release Type       
   Spill 11165 6.2 referent 8020 6.5 referent
   Air 17280 7.1 1.16 (1.06–1.28) 945 18.3 3.25 (2.69–3.91)
   Fire 878 22.8 4.47 (3.75–5.33) 34 35.8 8.08 (5.62–11.64)
   Explosion 244 53.7 17.57 (13.51–22.86) 11 45.5 12.07 (3.67–39.68)
   Fire and explosion 98 57.1 20.21 (13.45–30.38) 5 40.0 9.66 (1.61–57.91)
Substances†,‡
   Acid 1832 14.8 2.20 (1.92–2.53) NA
   Ammonia 2150 12.6 1.81 (1.58–2.07) 280 17.5 2.46     (1.79–3.38)
   Chlorine 597 28.0 4.90 (4.07–5.89) 18 33.3 5.62   (2.10–15.01)
   Other inorganics§ NA 968 10.7 1.40     (1.23–1.74)
   Pesticides 810 14.8 2.13 (1.74–2.59) NA
   Multiple substances 1142 24.0 4.12 (3.57–4.75) 352 36.4 7.46     (5.92–9.41)
  1. *Type of general land use of the surrounding area in which the event occurred.
  2. Only substance categories with a 95% CI greater than 1.0 are presented.
  3. Substance categories were coded as yes/no. The referent group is all other substances.
  4. §Excludes acids, bases, ammonia, and chlorine.
  5. Events with more than one hazardous substance released from different chemical categories.