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Table 1 A taxonomy of urban environmental issues

From: Obesity, physical activity, and the urban environment: public health research needs

Type of issues Representative risk factors Potential pathways of effect
Land use issues   
  Business and job loss Lengthens commutes, reduces walking
  Proximity of toxic facilities Pollution may discourage outdoor activities
  Lack of supermarkets May be more difficult to access healthy diets
  Abandoned buildings Reduces density, increases crime
  Vacant lots Increases crime, discourages walking
Infrastructure, maintenance and service issues   
  Sidewalks and street trees Lack of pedestrian amenities discourages walking
  Lighting Fear of crime keeps people indoors
  Transit projects Lack of transit makes people more dependent on driving
Social environment issues   
  Poverty and income inequality Poor areas suffer from disinvestment
  Racial segregation May promote "redlining", the denial of loans to certain communities
  Crime Unsafe areas may result in less physical activity, lower overall health status