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Table 1 Descriptive studies of sun exposure and sun-protective habits among outdoor workers

From: Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure among outdoor workers: State of the evidence and recommendations

Author, Date Population Data Collection Method Sample Size Response Rate
Bridges et al., 2004 Maryland watermen – whose work is fishing/harvesting crabs, oysters, etc. Self-administered surveys 63 Unknown
Buller et al., 2003 Ski area employees in the United States and Canada Self-administered surveys 7,289 Unknown
Garbe & Buettner, 2000 General outdoor workers – control cases from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland in a case-control dermatology study In-clinic interviews 498 Not reported
Ing et al., 2002 Farmers in Ontario, Canada Focus group discussions 34 Not reported
Marlenga, 1995 Male dairy farmers in Wisconsin, USA Self-administered mail survey 202 38%
Moehrle et al., 2003 Mountain guides in Europe Dosimeter assessment of UV radiation exposure 9 Inapplicable (not a sample study)
Parrott et al., 1996 Farmers, construction workers, road workers, and other outdoor workers in Georgia, USA Intercept survey, field observations, and in-depth interviews Survey: 155 farmers
Observations: 49 farmers, 41 construction workers, 39 road workers, 15 other outdoor workers
In-depth interviews: 9 farmers
Not reported
Rigel et al., 1995 Ski instructors in Colorado USA UV dosimeters 10 Not reported
Rosenman et al., 1995 Farmers, ≥ 40 years of age, and their spouses in Michigan, USA Self-administered mail survey 1,342 64%
Scerri et al., 1995 General outdoor workers in a sample of pedestrians in Malta Intercept survey 559 97%
Schenker et al., 2002 Farmers in California, USA Telephone survey 1,947 80%
Shoveller et al., 2000 General outdoor workers, Canada national sample Telephone survey 4,023 adults in entire sample; 546 were outdoor workers 69%
Stepanski & Mayer, 1998 Construction workers, transportation workers, and mail carriers in California, USA Field observation and self-administered survey Observations: 140 construction workers; 102 transportation workers; 106 mail carriers
Survey: 63 construction workers; 55 transportation workers; 122 mail carriers
Observations: Not reported
Survey: 73%
Woolley et al., 2002, 2004 General outdoor workers in a sample of men with a previous diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Queensland, Australia Self-administered mail survey 300 62%