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Table 2 Summary of near-highway health effects studies

From: Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks

Citation Location Highway traffic intensitya Pollutants measuredb Distance from highway Health Outcomes Statistical associatione
Schwartz et al. 2005 (22) Boston NA PM2.5, BC, CO NA Heart rate variability Decreases in measures of heart rate variability
Adar et al. 2007 (23) St. Louis, Missouri NA PM2.5, BC, UFP On highway in busses Heart rate variability Decreases in measures of heart rate variability
Hoek et al. 2002 (24) Netherlands NA BC, NO2 Continuous d Cardio-pulmonary mortality, lung cancer 1.41 OR for living near road
Tonne et al. 2007 (41) Worchester, Mass. NA PM2.5 Continuous d Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) 5% increase in odds of AMI
Venn et al. 2001 (49) Nottingham, UK NA NA Continuous d Wheezing in children 1.08 OR for living w/in 150 m of road
Nicolai et al. 2003 (58) Munich, Germany >30,000 veh/d Soot, benzene, NO2 Traffic counts within 50 m of house Asthma, respiratory symptoms, allergy 1.79 OR for asthma and high traffic volume
Gauderman et al. 2005 (65) Southern California   NO2 Continuous d Asthma, respiratory symptoms Increased asthma closer to freeways
McConnell et al. 2006 (57) Southern California NA NA Continuous d Asthma Large risk for children living w/in 75 m of road
Ryan, et al. 2007 (59) Cincinnati, Ohio > 1,000 trucks/d PM2.5 400 m Wheezing in children NA
Kim et al. 2004 (60) San Francisco 90,000 – 210,000 veh/d PM, BC, NOx School sites Childhood asthma 1.07 OR for high levels of NOx
Wjst et al. 1993 (68) Munich, Germany 7,000–125,000 veh/d NOx, CO School sites Asthma, bronchitis Several statistical associations found
Brunekreef et al. 1997 (69) Netherlands 80,000 – 152,000 veh/d PM10, NO2 Continuousd Lung function Decreased FEV with proximity to high truck traffic
Janssen et al. 2003 (74) Netherlands 30,000–155,000 veh/d PM2.5, NO2, benzene < 400 m c Lung function, respiratory symptoms No association with lung function
Peters et al. 1999 (82) Southern California NA PM10, NO2 NA Asthma, bronchitis, cough, wheeze 1.54 OR of wheeze for boys with exposure to NO2
Brauer et al. 2007 (67) Netherlands Highways and streets PM2.5, NO2, soot Modeled exposure Asthma, allergy, bronchitis, respiratory symptoms Strongest association was with food allergies
Visser et al. 2004 (91) Amsterdam > 10,000 veh/d NA NA Cancer Multiple associations
Vineis et al. 2006 (87) 10 Eurpoean countries NA PM10, NO2, SO2 NA Cancer 1.46 OR near heavy traffic, 1.30 OR for high exposure to NO2
Gauderman et al. 2007 (73) Southern California NA PM10, NO2 Continuousd Lung Function Decreased FEV for those living near freeway
  1. aAs defined in article cited (veh/d = vehicles per day; veh/h = vehicles per hour).
  2. bUFP = ultrafine particles; FP = fine particles; PM2.5 = particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 um; PM10 = particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 um; BC = black carbon; PPAH = particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; VOCs = volatile organic compounds
  3. cPollutant measurements were made along a transect away from the highway
  4. dProximity of each participant to a major road was calculated using GIS software
  5. eStatistical association between proximity to highway or exposure to traffic-generated pollutants and measured health outcomes
  6. NA = not applicable; measurements were not made.