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Table 1 Characteristics of the Cohort of Adult Offspring of BEN Patients and Controls

From: Metals and kidney markers in adult offspring of endemic nephropathy patients and controls: a two-year follow-up study

   2003/04 2004/05
   Offspring of BEN patients, n = 102 (%) Offspring of control patients, n = 99 (%) Offspring of BEN patients, n = 93 (%) Offspring of control patients, n = 96 (%)
Gender Men 50.0 47.5 48.8 47.9
Age 30–40 32.4 15.5 32.3 15.6
  41–55 43.1 57.6 43.0 58.3
  56 plus 24.5 27.3 24.7 26.0
Place of birth BEN village 95.0 72.7 94.6 72.9
Smoking status current smoker 39.2 34.4 38.7 35.4
  ex-smoker 22.6 12.1 21.5 12.5
  non-smoker 38.2 53.5 39.8 52.1
Diabetes   7.8 6.1 5.4 7.3
Hypertension in the offspring ξ   30.4 19.2 32.3 22.9
Other urinary tract diseases kidney cancer 2.0 0 2.2 0
  kidney stones 10.8 4.0 10.8 6.5
  Pyelonephritis 10.8 0 9.7 1
  Hydronephrosis 1 0 1 0
  Cystitis 3.9 5.1 5.4 5.2
BSA # mean (standard deviation) 1.87 (0.22) 1.82 (0.21) 1.86 (0.18) 1.81 (0.17)  
  1. ξ Systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 and/or diastolic ≥ 90 mm Hg [41]
  2. # BSA = square root ((height in cm × weight in kg)/3600).
  3. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is the between- subject minus the within- subject variance as a ratio to the sum of the two variances. A positive value of, for instance, 0.60 indicates that 60% of the variation is due to between-subject and 40% due to within-subject variance. ICC can become negative when the within-subject variance exceeds the between-subject variance.