Outcomes | TTHM | TTHM | TTHM | TTHM | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

0–4 μg/L | 5–9 μg/L | 10–19 μg/L | 20+ μg/L | ||

Reference | Low | Medium | High | ||

Any birth defect | |||||

N | 2,148 | 978 | 368 | 421 | 381 |

P (%) | 0.540 | 0.540 | 0.660 | 0.510 | 0.510 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.23 | 0.95 | 0.94 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.21 (1.07–1.36) | 0.97 (0.86–1.08) | 1.00 (0.89–1.13) | |

Anencephalus | |||||

N | 43 | 19 | 9 | 2 | 13 |

P (%) | 0.011 | 0.010 | 0.016 | 0.002 | 0.017 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.54 | 0.23 | 1.65 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.59 (0.72–3.52) | 0.23 (0.05–1.01) | 1.96 (0.94–4.07) | |

Hydrocephalus | |||||

N | 118 | 58 | 24 | 19 | 17 |

P (%) | 0.030 | 0.032 | 0.043 | 0.023 | 0.023 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.35 | 0.72 | 0.71 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.36 (0.85–2.20) | 0.71 (0.42–1.20) | 0.74 (0.43–1.28) | |

Ventricular septal defects | |||||

N | 59 | 27 | 6 | 8 | 18 |

P (%) | 0.015 | 0.015 | 0.011 | 0.010 | 0.024 |

OR | 1.00 | 0.72 | 0.65 | 1.61 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 0.74 (0.31–1.80) | 0.65 (0.29–1.43) | 1.81 (0.98–3.35) | |

Atrial septal defects | |||||

N | 19 | 8 | 5 | 2 | 4 |

P (%) | 0.005 | 0.004 | 0.009 | 0.002 | 0.005 |

OR | 1.00 | 2.03 | 0.55 | 1.21 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 2.15 (0.70–6.60) | 0.53 (0.11–2.49) | 1.33 (0.39–4.58) | |

Tetralogy of Fallot | |||||

N | 24 | 13 | 6 | 3 | 2 |

P (%) | 0.006 | 0.007 | 0.011 | 0.004 | 0.003 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.50 | 0.51 | 0.37 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.60 (0.61–4.23) | 0.46 (0.13–1.61) | 0.32 (0.07–1.47) | |

Cleft lip with/without palate | |||||

N | 358 | 155 | 55 | 84 | 64 |

P (%) | 0.090 | 0.085 | 0.098 | 0.101 | 0.085 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.15 | 1.19 | 1.00 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.15 (0.84–1.56) | 1.20 (0.91–1.55) | 0.98 (0.73–1.32) | |

Cleft palate | |||||

N | 129 | 52 | 15 | 28 | 34 |

P (%) | 0.033 | 0.029 | 0.027 | 0.034 | 0.045 |

OR | 1.00 | 0.94 | 1.18 | 1.58 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 0.94 (0.53–1.68) | 1.17 (0.74–1.86) | 1.56 (1.00–2.41) | |

Renal agenesis & dysgenesis | |||||

N | 76 | 33 | 14 | 13 | 16 |

P (%) | 0.019 | 0.018 | 0.025 | 0.016 | 0.021 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.38 | 0.87 | 1.17 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.33 (0.71–2.48) | 0.92 (0.48–1.75) | 1.27 (0.69–2.33) | |

Obstructive urinary tract defects | |||||

N | 49 | 19 | 10 | 10 | 10 |

P (%) | 0.012 | 0.010 | 0.018 | 0.012 | 0.013 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.71 | 1.16 | 1.27 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.65 (0.77–3.56) | 1.24 (0.57–2.67) | 1.44 (0.66–3.14) | |

Hypospadias | |||||

N | 72 | 43 | 8 | 14 | 7 |

P (%) | 0.018 | 0.024 | 0.014 | 0.017 | 0.009 |

OR | 1.00 | 0.61 | 0.72 | 0.39 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 0.59 (0.28–1.26) | 0.76 (0.41–1.38) | 0.47 (0.21–1.04) | |

Chromosome anomalies | |||||

N | 364 | 174 | 72 | 67 | 51 |

P (%) | 0.092 | 0.096 | 0.129 | 0.081 | 0.068 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.35 | 0.85 | 0.71 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.25 (0.95–1.65) | 0.93 (0.70–1.24) | 0.90 (0.66–1.24) | |

Down syndrome | |||||

N | 166 | 73 | 36 | 30 | 27 |

P (%) | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.064 | 0.036 | 0.036 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.60 | 0.90 | 0.89 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.48 (0.99–2.21) | 1.00 (0.65–1.54) | 1.17 (0.74–1.83) | |

Trisomy 13 | |||||

N | 14 | 4 | 2 | 6 | 2 |

P (%) | 0.004 | 0.002 | 0.004 | 0.007 | 0.003 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.63 | 3.30 | 1.21 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.56 (0.28–8.55) | 3.36 (0.94–12.0) | 1.12 (0.20–6.29) | |

Trisomy 18 | |||||

N | 54 | 23 | 12 | 13 | 6 |

P (%) | 0.014 | 0.013 | 0.021 | 0.016 | 0.008 |

OR | 1.00 | 1.70 | 1.24 | 0.63 | |

aOR (95% CI) | 1.00 | 1.64 (0.81–3.30) | 1.31 (0.66–2.59) | 0.81 (0.33–2.02) |