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Table 6 Associations between effect biomarkers and exposure information derived from questionnaires.

From: Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study

Effect biomarker n Parameter of exposure Confounding factors Regression coefficient Standerdized regression coefficient (95% CI) Squared semi-partial correlation p-value
PSA ng/mL (n = 770) 770 Consumption of dairy fat A/S/LS/BMI 0.009 0.071 (0.001, 0.142) 0.005 0.047
CEA ng/mL (n = 829) 829 Lifetime smoking A/S 0.064 0.429 (0.313, 0.546) 0.048 < 0.000001
   Consumption of Alcohol A/S/LS 0.030 0.174 (0.110, 0.237) 0.027 < 0.000001
   Exposure to solvents A/S/LS 0.383 0.100 (0.038, 0.161) 0.010 0.0015
   Recent alcohol consumption A/S/LS 0.046 0.096 (0.033, 0.160) 0.008 0.0029
   Consumption of fish fat A/S/LS 0.070 0.069 (0.008, 0.131) 0.005 0.027
   Exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons A/S/LS 0.266 0.068 (-0.080, 0.216) 0.005 0.030
p53 pg/mL 825 Consumption of fish fat A/S/LS 9.836 0.097 (0.028, 0.166) 0.009 0.0059
   Consumption of fruit A/S/LS 0.115 0.098 (0.029, 0.167) 0.009 0.0056
Micronuclei (number per 1000 binucleated cells) 773 Consumption of fish fat A/S/LS 0.312 0.108 (0.043, 0.173) 0.011 0.0011
   Consumption of vegetables A/S/LS 0.003 0.089 (0.024, 0.153) 0.008 0.0072
DNA strand breaks (%DNA, comet assay) 593 Consumption of meat fat A/S/RS -0.018 -0.125 (-0.208, -0.042) 0.014 0.0033
   Indoor stoking of diverse organic materials A/S/RS 0.228 0.111 (0.030, 0.191) 0.012 0.0072
   Exposure to solvents A/S/RS 0.208 0.102 (0.020, 0.184) 0.010 0.015
   Consumption of freshwater fish A/S/RS -0.447 -0.098 (-0.178, -0.018) 0.010 0.017
   Nuisance from noise (day) A/S/RS 0.124 0.094 (0.014, 0.175) 0.009 0.022
   Nuisance from noise (night) A/S/RS 0.170 0.087 (0.006, 0.167) 0.007 0.036
   Exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons A/S/RS 0.179 0.086 (0.005, 0.167) 0.007 0.039
  1. A multiple regression was performed with each effect biomarker as dependent variable with a measured exposure variable and confounding factors as independent variables. CI: confidence interval, n: number of cases, A = age, S = sex, LS = lifetime smoking, RS = recent smoking, BMI = body mass index.