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Table 2 Recent Studies of High Ambient Temperature and Mortality Examining Air Pollutants as Potential Confounders and/or Effect Modifiers

From: High ambient temperature and mortality: a review of epidemiologic studies from 2001 to 2008

Reference Study location Method Exposure Causes of death Result
Basu 2008 [6] 9 California counties, May to September 1999-2003 Time-series and case-crossover Same day mean apparent temperature; daily mean O3, also PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, SO2, lag 0 for PM, lag01 for gases All-cause mortality Confounders: none found
Effect modifiers: none found
Bell 2008 [15] Sao Paulo, Brazil, Santiago, Chile and Mexico City, Mexico, 1998-2002 Case-crossover Same day apparent temperature compared with days at 75th percentile, same day lag O3, same-day lag PM10 except Santiago lag 1 PM10 All-cause daily mortality Confounders: O3, PM10
Effect modifiers: not studied
McMichael 2008 [45] Delhi, Monterrey, Mexico City, Chiang Mai, Bangkok, Salvador, Sao Paulo, Santiago, Cape Town, Ljubljana, Bucharest, Sofia, 2 to 5-year series (1991-1999) Time-series Daily maximum threshold (16°C-31°C) temperature, relative humidity, precipitation data, PM10, BS, or TSP All-cause mortality Confounders: none found
Effect modifiers: not studied
Ren 2008 [22] US 95 NMMAPS counties, June to September 1987-2000 Time-series Daily maximum temperature (same-day, lag 1), maximum hourly O3 CVD mortality Confounders: not studied
Effect modifier: O3
Vaneckova 2008a [46] Sydney, Australia, October to March 1993-2001 Time-series Temporal Synoptic Index (TSI) on the highest 10% mortality days, O3, PM10 All-cause, circulatory, cerebrovascular Confounders: O3 on warm, humid days and PM10 on hot, dry days
Effect modifiers: not studied
Vaneckova 2008b [19] Sydney, Australia, October to March 1993-2004 Time-series Daily maximum temperature, maximum O3 Underlying and associated causes of death Confounders: O3, PM10
Effect modifiers: not studied
Zanobetti and Schwartz 2008 [7] 9 U.S. counties, May to September 1999-2002 Time series and case-crossover Daily apparent temperature (minimum, mean, maximum); daily mean O3, PM2.5 All-cause mortality Confounders: none found
Effect modifiers: none found
Kolb 2007 [32] Montreal, Canada 1984-1993 Case-crossover Mean daily and maximum temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, adjusted for O3 and both NO2 and O3 Daily all-cause mortality Confounders: none found
Effect modifiers: not studied
Medina-Ramon 2007 [21] 50 US cities in cold (November to March) and warm (May to September) seasons Case-crossover Binary variable as extreme temperature and continuous; O3 All-cause and CVD mortality Confounder: O3
Effect modifiers: not studied
Filleul 2006 [23] 9 French cities, all year and heat wave August 2003 Time-series Minimum and maximum temperature, 8-hour maximum O3 Daily all-cause mortality Confounders: not studied
Effect modifier: O3 for some cities
Ren 2006 [51] Brisbane, Australia (all year January 1996 to December 2001) Time-series Minimum temperature, daily PM10 as modifier Cardiorespiratory mortality Confounders: not studied
Effect modifier: PM10
Stafoggia 2006 [16] Bologna, Milan, Rome, Turin, 1997-2003 Case-crossover 30°C mean apparent temperature (lag01) relative to 20°C, O3 All-cause mortality Confounders: none found
Effect modifiers: not studied
Basu 2005 [5] 20 US metropolitan areas, seasonal analysis 1992 Time series (and case-crossover Mean daily temperature per 10°F adjusted for dew point temperature; daily O3 Individual and daily cardiorespiratory mortality Confounders: PM10 in summer
Effect modifiers: not studied
O'Neill 2005 [18] Mexico City (1996-98) and Monterrey
(1996-99)
Time series;
% change
Heat (35-36°C for Monterrey), mean temperature (25°C Monterrey, 15°C Mexico City), daily O3 Daily all-cause mortality Confounders: O3 and PM10 on hot days
Effect modifiers: not studied
Rainham and Smoyer-Tomic 2003 [17] Toronto, May 1 to September 30, 1980-1996 Time-series; relative risk (RR) Humidex, O3, also CO, NO2, SO2 Daily all-cause mortality Confounders: none found
Effect modifiers: not studied
Pattenden 2003 [49] Sofia, Bulgaria (1996-1999) and London, England (1993-1996) Time-series;
% change
Daily weather (2-day mean) and PM (black smoke for London and total suspended particulates for Sofia) Daily all-cause mortality Confounders: none found
Effect modifiers: not studied