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Table 2 Distribution of Selected Characteristics of Parents and Children by Prenatal PCE Exposure and Outcome Status

From: Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of congenital anomalies: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic+ Exposed With Anomalies Exposed Without Anomalies Unexposed With Anomalies Unexposed Without Anomalies
  n % n % n % n %
Year of birth         
Before 1968 0 0.0 0 0.0 12 12.6 313 10.8
1968-1974 10 16.4 239 15.0 28 29.5 770 26.5
1975-1980 27 44.3 684 42.8 29 30.5 1014 34.9
After 1980 24 39.3 674 42.2 26 27.4 807 27.8
Gender of infant         
Male 36 59.0 791 49.7 51 53.7 1454 50.8
Female 25 41.0 801 50.3 44 46.3 1407 49.2
Maternal age (n, mean (sd)) 61 28.4 (5.2) 1588 27.6 (4.6) 95 25.1 (4.6) 2886 26.0 (4.9)
Paternal age (n, mean (sd)) 61 31.9 (6.6) 1583 30.8 (5.9) 94 27.3 (6.2) 2849 28.9 (5.8)
% White Race 60 98.4 1522 95.5 91 95.8 2774 95.9
Maternal educational level         
High school graduate or less 7 11.5 331 20.8 22 23.2 667 23.0
Some college 16 26.2 561 35.2 35 36.8 996 34.4
Four year college grad or higher 38 62.3 701 44.0 38 40.0 1234 42.6
Paternal occupation         
White collar 37 61.7 809 51.6 47 51.1 1315 45.9
Blue collar 15 25.0 522 33.3 26 28.3 988 34.4
Other 8 13.3 234 15.0 19 20.7 565 19.7
Gravidity         
1 17 27.9 388 24.3 36 37.9 1073 36.9
2 17 27.9 561 35.1 31 32.6 846 29.1
3+ 27 44.3 648 40.6 28 29.5 985 33.9
Prior live births         
0 22 36.1 491 30.8 43 45.3 1240 42.7
1 24 39.3 615 38.5 31 32.6 934 32.2
2+ 15 24.6 490 30.7 21 22.1 729 25.1
History of prior pregnancy loss 20 32.8 273 17.1 13 13.7 436 15.0
Maternal cigarette smoking during first trimester         
11+ cigarettes a day 7 11.5 220 13.8 16 17.0 502 17.5
10 cigarettes or fewer a day 7 11.5 168 10.6 9 9.6 356 12.4
None 47 77.0 1202 75.6 69 73.4 2018 70.2
Maternal alcohol consumption during first trimester&         
1+ drinks a week 13 21.3 175 11.0 8 8.5 337 11.7
1-3 drinks a month 20 32.8 389 24.5 20 21.3 714 24.9
None 28 45.9 1022 64.4 66 70.2 1820 63.4
Maternal multivitamin use during pregnancy 59 96.7 1492 94.4 88 94.6 2653 93.1
Maternal occupational exposure to solvents before or during pregnancy 8 13.3 190 12.1 7 7.6 296 10.3
Maternal residential proximity to dry cleaning establishment 0 0.0 7 0.7 0 0.0 8 0.3
Maternal use of solvent-based spot removers: occasional or frequent use 16 27.1 342 21.8 30 31.9 614 21.7
Maternal use of professional dry cleaning: use > = once per month 17 27.9 468 29.7 31 33.7 843 30.4
Maternal use of self-service dry cleaning: ever use 12 19.7 209 13.4 19 20.4 460 16.3
  1. *Prenatal exposure based on final exposure designation.
  2. +Individuals with missing data are excluded from the percentages.
  3. &Heavy users of alcohol were excluded from the analysis