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Table 4 Frequencies, Odds Ratios (ORs), and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for Congenital Anomaly Categories by Prenatal PCE Exposure

From: Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of congenital anomalies: a retrospective cohort study

Anomaly Category Exposure Category Number with Anomaly Total Number Crude OR
(95% CI)
Unadjusted GEE OR*
(95% CI)
Central Nervous System Any 7 1604 3.2 (0.9,11) 3.1 (0.9,11)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 1 580 -------- --------
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 6 1024 4.3 (1.2,15) 4.1 (1.1,16)
  0 (Referent) 4 2908 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Neural Tube Defects+ Any 6 1603 3.6 (0.9, 15) 3.5 (0.8, 14)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 0 579 --------- ---------
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 6 1024 5.7 (1.4, 23) ---------
  0 (Referent) 3 2904 1.0 (-------) 1.0 (-------)
Cardiac Any 9 1606 0.9 (0.4,2.0) 0.9 (0.4,2.0)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 4 583 1.1 (0.4,3.3) 1.1 (0.4,3.3)
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 5 1023 0.8 (0.3,2.1) 0.8 (0.3,2.1)
  0 (Referent) 18 2922 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Gastrointestinal Any 11 1608 1.8 (0.8,4.2) 1.8 (0.7,4.4)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 6 585 2.7 (1.0,7.4) 2.7 (0.9,7.6)
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 5 1023 1.3 (0.4,3.7) 1.3 (0.4,3.8)
  0 (Referent) 11 2915 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Oral Clefts& Any 5 1602 3.0 (0.7,13) 3.2 (0.7,15)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 3 582 5.0 (1.0,25) 5.2 (0.9,30)
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 2 1020 1.9 (0.3,11) 1.8 (0.3,10)
  0 (Referent) 3 2907 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Genitourinary Any 11 1608 1.7 (0.7,3.8) 1.6 (0.6,3.8)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 4 583 1.7 (0.5,5.2) 1.6 (0.5,5.0)
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 7 1025 1.7 (0.7,4.2) 1.6 (0.6,4.3)
  0 (Referent) 12 2916 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Hypospadias$ Any Exposure 6 1603 1.8 (0.6,5.6) 1.4 (0.4,5.4)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 2 581 1.7 (0.3,8.3) 1.5 (0.3,7.2)
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 4 1022 1.9 (0.5,6.8) 1.4 (0.3,6.5)
  0 (Referent) 6 2910 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Musculoskeletal Any 19 1616 0.9 (0.5,1.6) 0.9 (0.5,1.6)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 10 589 1.4 (0.7,2.7) 1.5 (0.8,2.9)
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 9 1027 0.7 (0.3,1.4) 0.6 (0.3,1.3)
  0 (Referent) 37 2941 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Respiratory Any 0 1597 -------- --------
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 0 579 -------- --------
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 0 1018 -------- --------
  0 (Referent) 3 2905 -------- --------
Chromosomal Any 3 1600 1.4 (0.3, 6.1) 1.4 (0.3,6.1)
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 0 579 -------- --------
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 3 1021 2.1 (0.5,9.6) --------
  0 (Referent) 4 2908 1.0 (--------) 1.0 (--------)
Eye Any 1 1598 -------- --------
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 1 580 -------- --------
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 0 1018 -------- --------
  0 (Referent) 7 2911 -------- --------
Ear Any 0 1597 -------- --------
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 0 579 -------- --------
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 0 1018 -------- --------
  0 (Referent) 3 2907 -------- --------
Other Any 2 1599 -------- --------
  >1.136 g (40 ug/L) 0 579 -------- --------
  >0 - <= 1.136 g 2 1020 -------- --------
  0 (Referent) 4 2908 -------- --------
  1. *We attempted to calculate unadjusted GEE ORs if there were at least three exposed cases; in some instances the model did not converge and so the ORs are not available.
  2. + Included among central nervous system defects
  3. &Included among gastrointestinal defects
  4. $ Included among genitourinary defects