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Table 3 Risk estimates based on the comparison of observed MP and EP excretions with the different proposed NBEs

From: Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL)-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

Scenario Risk estimatea No. of risk estimates >1
Metabolites considered mean SD median max  
1- Comparison with the oral NBE derived from scenario 1 b      
Methylphosphates 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.71 0
Ethylphosphates 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.08 0
Sum of methyl+ethylphosphates 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.74 0
2- Comparison with the oral NBE derived from scenario 2 c      
Methylphosphates 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.59 0
Ethylphosphates 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.14 0
Sum of methyl+ethylphosphates 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.63 0
3- Comparison with the dermal NBE d      
Methylphosphates 0.11 0.17 0.05 1.88 1
Ethylphosphates 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.23 0
Sum of methyl+ethylphosphates 0.12 0.17 0.06 1.92 1
  1. a The risk estimate corresponds to the ratio observed metabolite excretion/NBE.
  2. b Simulation of an oral exposure to the NOEL of either malathion or chlorpyrifos at 6:00 pm.
  3. c Simulation of an oral exposure to 1/3 of the NOEL of either malathion or chlorpyrifos at 7:00 am, noon and 6:00 pm.
  4. d Simulation of an 8-h dermal exposure to the NOEL of either malathion or chlorpyrifos starting 12 h prior to the onset of urine sampling.