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Table 1 Summary of the overall epidemiologic evidence on municipal solid waste disposal: landfills and incinerators.

From: Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste

HEALTH EFFECT LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
  LANDFILLS INCINERATORS
All cancer Inadequate Limited
   Stomach cancer Inadequate Limited
   Colorectal cancer Inadequate Limited
   Liver cancer Inadequate Limited
   Larynx cancer Inadequate Inadequate
   Lung cancer Inadequate Limited
   Soft tissue sarcoma Inadequate Limited
   Kidney cancer Inadequate Inadequate
   Bladder cancer Inadequate Inadequate
   Non Hodgkin's lymphoma Inadequate Limited
   Childhood cancer Inadequate Inadequate
Total birth defects Limited Inadequate
   Neural tube defects Limited Inadequate
   Orofacial birth defects Inadequate Limited
   Genitourinary birth defects Limited* Limited**
   Abdominal wall defects Inadequate Inadequate
   Gastrointestinal birth defects§ Inadequate Inadequate
Low birth weight Limited Inadequate
Respiratory diseases or symptoms Inadequate Inadequate
  1. "Inadequate": available studies are of insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to decide the presence or absence of a causal association. "Limited": a positive association has been observed between exposure and disease for which a causal interpretation is considered to be credible, but chance, bias, or confounding could not be ruled out with reasonable confidence.
  2. * Hypospadias and epispadias
  3. ** Renal dysplasia
  4. § The original estimates were given for "surgical corrections of gastroschisis and exomphalos"