Skip to main content

Table 2 Relative risk estimates for community exposure to landfills and incinerators

From: Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste

Health effect Distance from the source Relative Risk (Confidence Interval) Level of confidence**
Landfills  
Congenital malformations[24]    
   All congenital malformations Within 2 km 1.02 (99% CI = 1.01-1.03) Moderate
   Neural tube defects Within 2 km 1.06 (99% CI = 1.01-1.12) Moderate
   Hypospadias and epispadias Within 2 km 1.07 (99% CI = 1.04-1.11) Moderate
   Abdominal wall defects Within 2 km 1.05 (99% CI = 0.94-1.16) Moderate
   Gastroschisis and exomphalos* Within 2 km 1.18 (99% CI = 1.03-1.34) Moderate
Low birth weight[24] Within 2 km 1.06 (99% CI = 1.052-1.062) High
   Very low birth weight Within 2 km 1.04 (99% CI = 1.03-1.06) High
Incinerators  
Congenital malformations[45]    
   Facial cleft Within 10 km 1.30 (95% CI = 1.06-1.59) Moderate
   Renal dysplasia Within 10 km 1.55 (95% CI = 1.10-2.20) Moderate
Cancer[30]    
   All cancer Within 3 km 1.035 (95% CI = 1.03-1.04) Moderate
   Stomach cancer Within 3 km 1.07 (95% CI = 1.02-1.13) Moderate
   Colorectal cancer Within 3 km 1.11 (95% CI = 1.07-1.15) Moderate
   Liver cancer Within 3 km 1.29 (95% CI = 1.10-1.51) High
   Lung cancer Within 3 km 1.14 (95% CI = 1.11-1.17) Moderate
   Soft-tissue sarcoma Within 3 km 1.16 (95% CI = 0.96-1.41) High
   Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Within 3 km 1.11 (95% CI = 1.04-1.19) High
  1. *The original estimates were given for "surgical corrections of..". **The following scale for the level of confidence has been adopted: very high, high, moderate, low, very low.