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Table 6 Linear regression analysis of log(C-peptide) on 2,4-D and covariates for ages 20-59, NHANES III, 1988-1994.

From: Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

Independent variables All available subjects (n = 706) Susceptible subpopulations
   HbA1c > 5.1% T4 ≤ 8.5 μg/dl
   (n = 343) (n = 343)
  Estimate (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI)
Intercept 1.258 0.707 0.778
  (0.294, 2.221)b (-0.585, 1.999) (-0.733, 2.289)
2,4-D, binary 1.567 3.599 1.733
  (-0.344, 3.478) (0.970, 6.228)b (-1.078, 4.545)
Log(HDL) for 2,4-D < LOD -0.562 -0.438 -0.558
  (-0.765, -0.358)a (-0.719, -0.157)b (-0.875, -0.241)a
Log(HDL) for 2,4-D ≥ LOD -0.986 -1.397 -1.029
  (-1.462, -0.509)a (-2.040, -0.754)a (-1.721, -0.336)b
Log(urinary creatinine) -0.013 0.018 0.029
  (-0.087, 0.062) (-0.081, 0.116) (-0.088, 0.147)
Gender -0.191 -0.184 -0.167
  (-0.297, -0.086)a (-0.324, -0.044)b (-0.337, 0.004)
Age (years) 0.005 0.005 0.009
  (0.000, 0.010)c (-0.002, 0.011) (0.001, 0.017)c
Non-Hispanic Black -0.038 -0.045 0.025
  (-0.161, 0.084) (-0.209, 0.119) (-0.166, 0.216)
Mexican American 0.034 0.016 0.100
  (-0.093, 0.162) (-0.161, 0.193) (-0.117, 0.316)
Other ethnicity 0.151 0.041 0.151
  (-0.147, 0.449) (-0.326, 0.408) (-0.303, 0.605)
Past smoker -0.022 0.001 -0.048
  (-0.156, 0.112) (-0.170, 0.173) (-0.253. 0.156)
Active smoker 0.002 -0.043 -0.059
  (-0.108, 0.112) (-0.189, 0.104) (-0.235, 0.117)
BMI 25-29 kg/m2 0.480 0.480 0.607
  (0.366, 0.594)a (0.325, 0.636)a (0.431, 0.783)a
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 0.890 0.858 1.067
  (0.756, 1.024)a (0.691, 1.025)a (0.849, 1.286)a
Alcohol consumption -0.015 -0.022 0.092
  (-0.192, 0.162) (-0.248, 0.205) (-0.148, 0.331)
Income ≥ 20K (%) -0.052 0.022 0.008
  (-0.155, 0.050) (-0.110, 0.154) (-0.157, 0.174)
Hours of fasting -0.008 -0.008 -0.015
  (-0.019, 0.004) (-0.022, 0.007) (-0.033, 0.002)
  1. a p ≤ 0.001, b p ≤ 0.01, c p ≤ 0.05
  2. P-values for the interaction term log(HDL)*2,4-D are 0.10 for all subjects, 0.006 for subjects with HbA1c > 5.1%, and 0.21 for subjects with T4 ≤ 8.5 μg/dl.