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Table 1 Evidence of association between sub-daily exposure to PM and arrhythmia, ischemia and myocardial infarctiona

From: Cardiovascular effects of sub-daily levels of ambient fine particles: a systematic review

Authors Subjects Design Exposure Levels Dur. Lags Effect
ST-Segment depression
Chuang et al., 2008 Aged 43-75 yrs, with CVD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 mean daily levels: 50th: 9 μg/m3, (max 40); BC measured; 1 to 6 hb Lag0 -
Gold et al., 2005 Aged 61-88 yrs Epi. Fixed site PM2.5, 12 h mean levels: 10th: 4, 90th: 26 μg/m3; BC also measured; 1 hb Lag1 to 12 h ↑ at lag1 to 12 with BC
Lanki et al., 2008 Mean age 68 yrs (SD7), with CVD Epi. Assessment during exercise Fixed site PM2.5 hrly levels: 25th: 9, 75th: 18 μg/m3; fixed site UFP also measured; personal measurements made; 1 and 4 hb Lag0 to 24 h; ↑ at lag1 to 10 with PM2.5 1 h; ↑ with 4 h dur. pre-testing
Gong et al., 2003 Aged 18-45 yrs, 50% asthmatics Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 174 μg/m3 (SD37) with exercise; 2 h Lag0_4c 4_22 h -
Mills et al., 2007b Mean age 60 yrs (SD1), with prior MI Exp. Diesel PM : 300 μg/m3 with exercise; 1 h Lag0 ↑ at lag0
Fibrillation -arrhythmia
Ljungman et al., 2008 Mean age 62 yrs (SD13), with ICD Epi. Fixed site PM10 mean 2 h levels: 2 cities 50th: 19-15 μg/m3; PM2.5 measured in one city; 2 hb Lag0 ↑ v. arrhythmia with PM10; - with PM2.5
Rich et al., 2006 Aged 45-78 yrs, with ICD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly 50th: 9 μg/m3 (25th: 6, 75th: 15); BC also measured; 1 hb Lag0 - a. fibrillation
Rich et al., 2006b Mean age 63 yrs (20-88), with ICD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly 50th: 16 μg/m3 (25th: 12, 75th: 22); BC and OC also measured; 6 h Lag0 - v. arrhythmia
Rich et al., 2005 Mean age 64 yrs (19-90), with ICD Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly 50th: 9 μg/m3 (25th: 16, 75th: 15); BC also measured; 2 and 6 hb Lag0 - v. arrhythmia
Gong et al., 2008 Aged 18-50 yrs, 45% asthmatics Exp. CAP~UFP : 100 μg/m3 (SD68) with exercise; 2 h Lag0_4c 4_22 h - ectopic beats
Gong et al., 2004 Mean age 36 yrs (SD11), 75% asthmatics Exp. CAP~PM10 : 157 μg/m3 (SD41) with exercise; 2 h Lag0_4c 4_22 h - ectopic beats
Gong et al., 2004b Aged 54-85 yrs, 68% COPD Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 167 (SD27) μg/m3; with exercise; 2 h Lag0_4c 4_22 h - ectopic beatsd
Gong et al., 2003 Aged 18-45 yrs, 50% asthmatics Exp. CAP~PM2.5 : 174 μg/m3 (SD37) with exercise; 2 h Lag0_4c 4_22 h - ectopic beats
Myocardial Infarction and cardiac arrest
Murakami et al., 2006 Deaths for MI, mean age 72 yrs (SD13) Epi. Fixed site PM7 hrly 50th: 44 μg/m3 (0-1093); 1 to 6hb Lag0
Peters et al., 2005 MI subjects, mean age 60 yrs (25-74) Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly 50th: 15 μg/m3 (25th: 11, 75th: 20); UFP also measured; Exposure to traffic; 1 hb Lag0 to 6 h and 24 h - with PM2.5 or UFP; ↑ with traffic at lag0 to 6 h
Peters et al., 2001 MI subjects, mean age 62 yrs (SD13) Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly mean: 12 μg/m3 (SD9); 1 hb Lag0 to 5 h and 24 h ↑ at lag0 to 2 h
Rosenthal et al., 2008 Cardiac arrest subjects, mean age 61 yrs (SD17) Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly 50th: 14 μg/m3 (10th: 6, 90th: 30); 1 and 4 hb Lag0 to 8 h ↑ at lag0 and 1 h
Sullivan et al., 2005 MI subjects, mean age 69 yrs (21-98) Epi. Fixed site PM2.5 hrly 50th: 8.6 μg/m3 (2-147); 1, 2, 4 hb Lag0 -
  1. a Numbers are rounded to the nearest integer for simplification; b Exposure durations longer than 6 h also studied; c Lag0_4 includes up to 90 minutes before the beginning of exposure; d Inconsistent results were reported between population subgroups (e.g. normal and asthmatics);
  2. Abbreviations: a. fibrillation: Atrial fibrillation; BC: Black carbon; CAP: Concentrated ambient particles; CVD: Cardiovascular disease; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Dur.: Duration of exposure; Epi.: Epidemiological; Exp.: Experimental; hrly: Hourly; ICD: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators; MI: Myocardial infarction; OC organic carbon; PM: Fine particles; SD: Standard deviation; UFP: Ultrafine particles; v. arrhythmia: Ventricular arrhythmia; -: No significant statistical association;