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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer and reported cleaning product use, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1988-1995

From: Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

Product category Cases (No.) Controls (No.) Adjusted OR 95% CI P trend
Combined cleaning product use
   Quartile 1 91 99 1.0 Reference  
   Quartile 2 100 107 1.1 0.8, 1.7  
   Quartile 3 112 125 1.1 0.7, 1.7  
   Quartile 4 104 70 2.1 1.4, 3.3 0.003
Combined air freshener use (sprays and solids)
   Quartile 1 74 77 1.0 Reference  
   Quartile 2 113 117 1.1 0.7, 1.7  
   Quartile 3 123 138 1.0 0.7, 1.6  
   Quartile 4 101 71 1.9 1.2, 3.0 0.02
Air freshener spray
   Never use 90 95 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 322 308 1.2 0.9, 1.8  
   < Once a month 83 88 1.1 0.7, 1.7  
   Monthly 47 41 1.3 0.8, 2.3  
   Weekly 114 110 1.3 0.8, 1.9  
   Daily 78 69 1.3 0.8, 2.1 0.15
Solid air freshener
   Never use 259 288 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 153 115 1.7 1.2, 2.3  
   < 2 times/year 50 41 1.4 0.9, 2.2  
   2-6 times/year 77 58 1.7 1.2, 2.6  
   ≥ 7 times/year 26 16 2.0 1.0, 4.0 0.001
Oven cleaner
   Never use 33 33 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 379 370 1.0 0.6, 1.7  
   < 2 times/year 145 143 1.0 0.6, 1.8  
   2-6 times/year 199 196 1.0 0.6, 1.7  
   ≥ 7 times/year 35 31 1.2 0.6, 2.3 0.80
Surface cleaner
   Never use 53 54 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 359 348 1.1 0.7, 1.7  
   < Once a month 61 60 1.0 0.6, 1.6  
   Monthly 57 57 1.0 0.6, 1.8  
   Weekly 186 171 1.2 0.8, 1.9  
   Daily 55 60 1.2 0.7, 2.2 0.22
Mold/mildew control
   Never use 296 322 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 114 81 1.7 1.2, 2.3  
Mold/mildew control with bleach
   Never use 320 334 1.0 Reference  
   Any use 90 68 1.5 1.0, 2.1  
   < Once a month 47 38 1.2 0.8, 2.0  
   Monthly 14 11 1.5 0.7, 3.5  
   ≥ Weekly 29 19 2.0 1.1, 3.8 0.02
  1. Odds ratios are adjusted for age at diagnosis/reference year, birth decade (six categories), previous breast cancer diagnosis, family history of breast cancer, age at first live or still birth (< 30, ≥ 30/nulliparous), education (five categories). "Combined cleaning product use" combines frequency of use across five product categories: air freshener spray, solid air freshener, oven cleaner, surface cleaner, and mold/mildew control with bleach.