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Table 2 Demographic characteristics and air pollution variables by type of community in Gauteng and North West provinces, South Africa during November-December 2012

From: Chronic respiratory disease among the elderly in South Africa: any association with proximity to mine dumps?

  Community p-value c
Exposed a (n = 1499) Unexposed b (n = 898)
Sex    
Female 774 (51.6) 472 (52.3) 0.66
Male 725 (48.4) 426 (47.4)
Age (in years)    
55-59 500 (33.4) 225 (25.1) <0.001
60-64 405 (27.0) 221 (24.6)
65-69 228 (15.2) 125 (13.9)
70-84 309 (20.6) 278 (31.0)
≥85 48 (3.2) 29 (3.2)
Missing 9 (0.6) 20 (2.2)
Population group    < 0.001
Black 1006 (41.9) 695 (29.0)
Coloured 493 (20.6) 203 (8.5)
Level of education    
No schooling 262 (17.5) 271 (30.2) <0.001
Primary 479 (32.0) 287 (32.0)
Secondary 691 (46.1) 332 (37.0)
Tertiary 67 (4.5) 8 (0.8)
Smoking habits    
Non-smoker 888 (59.2) 598 (66.6) <0.001
Ex-smoker 234 (15.6) 187 (20.8)
Current smoker 377 (25.2) 113 (12.6)
Occupational exposure history to dust/chemical fumes    
Yes 637 (42.5) 149 (16.6) <0.001
No 862 (57.5) 749 (83.4)
Main residential heating/cooking fuel type    
Electricity 1422 (94.9) 783 (87.2) <0.001
Gas 31 (2.1) 67 (7.5)
Paraffin 25 (1.7) 6 (0.7)
Open fires 1 (0.07) 13 (1.5)
Missing 20 (1.3) 29 (3.2)
  1. Figures in parentheses are percentages.
  2. aExposed: communities located 1–2 km from mine dumps.
  3. bUnexposed: communities located 5 km or more from mine dumps.
  4. cp-values of the Chi-square test.