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Table 2 Associations of product use and phthalate metabolite concentrations (ng/mL) among US reproductive-aged women, NHANES 2001-2004a

From: Vaginal douching and racial/ethnic disparities in phthalates exposures among reproductive-aged women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004

  MEP MnBP
  Unadjusted (N = 739) Adjusted (N = 731) Unadjusted (N = 739) Adjusted (N = 731)
  % change 95 % CI % change 95 % CI % change 95 % CI % change 95 % CI
Feminine hygiene product use in past month
Tamponb −6.4 (−24.9, 16.6) 6.1 (−16.0, 35.5) 2.4 (−11.8, 18.9) 4.1 (−11.0, 21.9)
Sanitary napkinb −7.6 (−21.5, 8.7) −9.0 (−22.8, 7.2) −3.2 (−17.6, 13.6) −4.4 (−18.9, 12.7)
Vaginal doucheb 59.5* (22.7, 107.2) 51.6* (18.8, 93.6) 12.2 (−8.3, 37.3) 9.8 (−9.7, 33.6)
Feminine sprayb 79.7 (−2.6, 231.4) 63.2 (−12.4, 204.2) 26.4 (−15.0, 88.1) 20.7 (−21.0, 84.3)
Feminine powderb 64.9 (−16.4, 225.3) 49.4 (−23.9, 193.2) 23.7 (−25.7, 105.9) 16.6 (−32.1, 100.3)
Wipes/ Towelettesb 21.5 (−11.1, 65.9) 14.7 (−16.0, 56.7) −6.5 (−25.8, 17.9) −7.8 (−27.9, 17.9)
Other productsb 35.4 (−12.2, 108.7) 26.9 (−19.8, 100.8) 27.8 (−7.5, 76.7) 25.9 (−7.9, 72.1)
Average douching frequency in past 6 monthsb
Occasional (≤1 month) 40.5* (6.1, 86.1) 33.6 (−0.3,79.2) 7.7 (−5.6, 22.8) 8.2 (−4.5, 22.6)
Frequent (≥2 month) 154.4** (68.7, 283.6) 152.2** (68.2, 278.3) 29.0 (−6.2, 77.3) 24.1 (−10.3, 71.8)
P-trend   <0.001   <0.001   0.094   0.145
  1. aMEP and MnBP concentrations were natural log transformed. All models were adjusted for urinary creatinine; adjusted models additionally controlled for age, race/ethnicity, BMI, and educational attainment
  2. bReference group is non-users; *p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001