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Table 3 Association between race/ethnicity and MEP (ng/mL) among US reproductive-aged women with and without adjustment for douching frequency, NHANES 2001-2004

From: Vaginal douching and racial/ethnic disparities in phthalates exposures among reproductive-aged women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004

  Model 1 (N = 731) Model 2 (N = 731)
  % change 95 % CI % change 95 % CI
Race/Ethnicitya     
Black 48.4* (16.8, 88.6) 26.4 (−0.9, 61.2)
Mexican-American 58.2** (24.7, 100.8) 70.1* (34.1, 115.9)
Age −0.1 (−1.2, 1.0) −0.4 (−1.5, 0.7)
Educational attainmentb     
< HS graduate 19.0 (−20.2, 77.5) 6.6 (−26.7, 54.9)
HS graduate 30.7* (3.4, 65.1) 27.7* (2.3, 59.3)
BMI 0.3 (−0.9, 1.5) 0.2 (−1.0, 1.4)
Urinary creatinine 129.4** (92.3, 173.8) 124.5** (88.2, 167.9)
Douching frequency in past six monthsc
Occasional (≤1 month) - - 33.6 (−0.3, 79.2)
Frequent (≥2 month) - - 152.2** (68.2, 278.3)
R2 0.24   0.27  
  1. aReference group is white women
  2. bReference group is > HS graduate
  3. cReference group is non douche users; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.001