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Table 2 Crude and adjusted odds ratios of case and control urine samples at the hospital admission timepoint* (urinary creatinine in adjusted model)

From: Arsenic exposure is associated with pediatric pneumonia in rural Bangladesh: a case control study

Hospital Admission Time point
All pneumonia cases (severe and very severe)
Total urinary arsenic (μg/L) Case urine samples (N = 153) Control urine samples (N = 296) Crude OR 95 % CI Adjusted OR 95 % CI
  No. % No. %     
 0–5.9 23 15 % 85 29 % 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 6.0–16.9 37 24 % 77 26 % 1.78 0.97, 3.25 1.75 0.90, 3.40
 17.0–50.9 43 28 % 69 23 % 2.30 1.27, 4.19 2.11 1.01, 4.34
 Greater or equal to 51.0 50 33 % 65 22 % 2.84 1.58, 5.13 2.04 0.92, 4.51
Only severe pneumonia cases (sensitivity analysis)
Total urinary arsenic (μg/L) Case urine samples (N = 153) Control urine samples (N = 296) Crude OR 95 % CI Adjusted OR 95 % CI
  No. % No. %     
 0–5.9 17 13 % 85 29 % 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 6.0–16.9 35 26 % 77 26 % 2.73 1.18, 4.38 2.12 1.04, 4.32
 17.0–50.9 38 28 % 69 23 % 2.75 1.43, 5.30 2.35 1.07, 5.17
 Greater or equal to 51.0 45 33 % 65 22 % 3.46 1.82, 6.60 2.36 1.02, 5.42
  1. *Odds ratio were adjusted for weight for height (z-score less than −2 SDs), breastfeeding in the prior week (exclusive, mixed, none), paternal education, age, number of people living in the household (log transformed), and urinary creatinine