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Table 5 Crude and adjusted odds ratios of case and control urine samples at the convalescent timepoint (without urinary creatinine adjustment)*

From: Arsenic exposure is associated with pediatric pneumonia in rural Bangladesh: a case control study

Convalescent Time point
All pneumonia cases (severe and very severe)
Total urinary arsenic (μg/L) Case convalescent urine samples (N = 153) Control urine samples (N = 296) Crude OR 95 % CI Adjusted OR 95 % CI
  No. % No. %     
 0–5.9 30 20 % 85 29 % 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 6.0–14.9 44 29 % 67 23 % 1.86 1.06, 3.27 2.10 1.16, 3.81
 15.0–41.9 39 25 % 72 24 % 1.53 0.87, 2.71 1.97 1.03, 3.79
 Greater or equal to 42.0 40 26 % 72 24 % 1.57 0.89, 2.78 2.03 1.04, 3.97
Only severe pneumonia cases (sensitivity analysis)
Total urinary arsenic (μg/L) Case convalescent urine samples (N = 135) Control urine samples (N = 296) Crude OR 95 % CI Adjusted OR 95 % CI
  No. % No. %     
 0–5.9 24 18 % 85 29 % 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 6.0–14.9 39 29 % 67 23 % 2.06 1.13, 3.76 2.30 1.22, 4.32
 15.0–41.9 38 28 % 72 24 % 1.87 1.03, 3.41 2.26 1.15, 4.46
 Greater or equal to 42.0 34 25 % 72 24 % 1.67 0.91, 3.08 2.09 1.03, 4.23
  1. *Odds ratio were adjusted for weight for height (z-score less than −2 SDs and z-score greater or equal to −2 SDs), breastfeeding in the prior week (exclusive, mixed, none), paternal education, age, and number of people living in the household (log transformed)