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Table 1 Characteristics at baseline of study participants with information on BC (n = 540) and PM2.5 (n = 475)a

From: Exposure to sub-chronic and long-term particulate air pollution and heart rate variability in an elderly cohort: the Normative Aging Study

Study variable Subjects with BCb Subjects with PM2.5b
Age (years) 73.6 (7.0) 75.2 (6.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.1 (4.0) 27.9 (4.1)
  ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n [%]) 137 (25.4) 121 (25.5)
  < 30 kg/m2 (n [%]) 403 (74.6) 354 (74.5)
Fasting blood glucose (n [%])   
  < 110 mg/dL 371 (68.7) 332 (69.9)
  ≥ 110 or <126 mg/dL 96 (17.8) 91 (19.2)
  ≥ 126 mg/dL 73 (13.5) 52 (11.0)
Smoking   
 Never smoker 156 (28.9) 143 (30.1)
 Current smoker 22 (4.1) 14 (3.0)
 Former smoker 362 (67.0) 318 (67.0)
Anti-hypertensive medicine use (n [%])   
 Yes 325 (60.2) 311 (65.5)
 No 215 (39.8) 164 (34.5)
Season   
 Spring 135 (25.0) 112 (23.6)
 Summer 109 (20.2) 120 (25.3)
 Fall 166 (30.7) 144 (30.3)
 Winter 130 (24.1) 99 (20.8)
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 92.6 (10.7) 87.9 (10.0)
Room temperature (°C) 24.1 (1.9) 23.3 (1.8)
Diabetes (n [%])   
 Yes 107 (19.8) 99 (20.8)
 No 433 (80.2) 376 (79.2)
Oxidative stress gene score   
 Low 184 (42.0) 146 (38.4)
 High 254 (58.0) 234 (61.6)
Heart rate variability   
 Log10HF, msec2 1.9 (0.7) 2.0 (0.7)
 Log10LF, msec2 2.0 (0.6) 1.9 (0.6)
 Log10SDNN, msec 1.5 (0.3) 1.5 (0.3)
 Log10LF:HF 0.04 (0.5) −0.05 (0.5)
  1. BC black carbon, PM 2.5 particulate matter <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter
  2. aNormative Aging Study (2000–2011)
  3. bValues are mean (SD) or n (%)