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Table 1 Which GHG reduction policies do reduce CO2 and have co-benefits for health?

From: Public health impacts of city policies to reduce climate change: findings from the URGENCHE EU-China project

Policy CO2 Air pollution Health Wellbeing Financial wellbeing Cities (in brackets if policy not included in full scenario)
In-home biomass heating ++ -- -- -- (indoor air) -- Stuttgart, Thessaloniki, Kuopio, Basel
Local fuel mix:oil/wood to gas/electric    ++    Thessaloniki
Solar/wind ++ + +    (Kuopio)
Waste heat from industry   + +    (Rotterdam)
Power generation       
Local fuel mix: oil/wood to gas/electric    ++    Thessaloniki
Local power plant: peat/oil to wood ++ + +    Kuopio
Geothermal Less than above      (Kuopio)
Improve translational efficiencies ++      (Suzhou)
Reduce energy intense industry Only if industry not moved elsewhere    + (job satisfaction) -- (Suzhou)
Cleaner technology   ++     Rotterdam, Suzhou, Xi’an, Basel
Carbon capture and storage      -- (Rotterdam)
Building renovation to improve energy efficiency Sometimes outpaced by growth of new buildings Depends on ventilation, second hand smoke (SHS), domestic heating source Depends on ventilation, SHS, domestic heating source Warmth helpful but depends on ventilation ++ Kuopio, Basel, Thessaloniki (Rotterdam)
Building isolation   +     (Rotterdam)
Discourage air conditioning     -   (Suzhou)
Increase access to greenspace     +=   (Kuopio) (Suzhou)
Promote cars with lower emissions       
Increase electric cars Depends on source of electricity =++ ++ ++ noise ++ Rotterdam, Suzhou, Xi’an, Basel, Thessaloniki (Kuopio)
Promote diesel   ++ (if emissions controlled) ++    Thessaloniki
Car emissions change to Euro 6 ++ but does not reduce overall emissions due to car fleet growth ++ ++    Rotterdam, Suzhou, Xi’an, Basel,
Biofuels ++ but emissions from growth/transport not calculated      Kuopio
Encourage alternative transport models       
Light rail more frequent throughout the day + +     Stuttgart
New metro ++    +noise   Thessaloniki
Improved cycling network + + + +health   Stuttgart, Basel (Rotterdam)(Suzhou)
Discourage car use       
Congestion charge ++ +     Stuttgart
Parking management ++ +   =   Stuttgart (Kuopio)
Traffic reduction -general ++ + =+ =+   Rotterdam, Suzhou, Xi’an, Basel, Stuttgart
  1. ++ positive impact, + minor possible positive impact, = no impact, -minor possible negative impact, -- positive impact