Skip to main content

Table 3 Seropositivity associated with blood lead and cadmium levels, for each two-fold increase and across percentiles, among non-smoking NHANES participants, 1999–2012. All subjects

From: Elevated blood lead and cadmium levels associated with chronic infections among non-smokers in a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

Heavy metal H. pylori T. gondii Hepatitis B virus
Positive (Weighted %) AOR (95 % CI)a,b Positive (Weighted %) AOR (95 % CI)a,c Positive (Weighted %) AOR (95 % CI)a,d
Per doubling of blood lead 23.1 1.22 (1.12–1.34) e 11.0 1.19 (1.12–1.28) 4.9 1.19 (1.08–1.32)
Blood lead concentration (μg/dL)
 Quartile 1 12.7 Ref 5.6 Ref 2.2 Ref
 Quartile 2 19.9 1.31 (0.98–1.75) 8.7 1.20 (0.93–1.54) 4.0 1.41 (1.04–1.93)
 Quartile 3 24.3 1.39 (1.13–1.72) 12.8 1.53 (1.22–1.91) 6.1 1.79 (1.31–2.43)
 Quartile 4 34.1 1.69 (1.33–2.15) 16.5 1.56 (1.28–1.90) 7.1 1.70 (1.23–2.35)
p for trend <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0077
Per doubling of blood cadmium 23.1 1.37 (1.17–1.62) 11.0 1.06 (0.96–1.18) 4.9 1.38 (1.23–1.55)
Blood cadmium concentration (μg/L)
 Tertile 1 13.4 Ref 6.9 Ref 2.8 Ref
 Tertile 2 22.1 1.51 (1.16–1.97) 9.7 1.34 (1.03–1.74) 3.8 1.09 (0.84–1.43)
 Tertile 3 30.5 1.48 (1.25–1.76) 14.4 1.32 (1.03–1.69) 7.7 1.72 (1.32–2.25)
p for trend <0.0001 0.1438 <0.0001
  1. aMultivariable logistic regression used with survey procedures
  2. bAdjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, country of birth origin, family income, self-reported general health condition, tap water source, and household crowding
  3. cAdjusted for NHANES cycle, age, gender, race/ethnicity, country of birth origin, family income, self-reported general health condition, and household crowding
  4. dAdjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, country of birth origin, family income, self-reported general health condition, and use of illicit/street injected drugs
  5. eBolded font denotes statistically significant (α < 0.05)