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Table 1 Environmental Risks

From: Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement

This overview of possible adverse effects associated with rising GBH use is focused on mammalian health risks. There are also many environmental and soil-ecosystem problems associated with heavy and repeated uses of GBHs affecting other organisms (for example, fish, butterflies, earthworms, beneficial soil microorganisms) [47].
These problems arise from the large volumes of GBHs applied across vast areas in many farming areas (for example, 80% or more of the harvested cropland in many counties in the U.S., and provinces or political jurisdictions in other countries, are sprayed with GBHs).
Glyphosate binds strongly to some soils, but not others. After repeated applications, it can accumulate and become a long-term source of soil and groundwater contamination [48]. The main pathways of GBH degradation are known and the principal breakdown products (AMPA, formaldehyde) could be toxic to a variety of non-target organisms. Continued long-term use of GBHs could pose a threat to soil health and fertility [47, 49], with possible adverse effects on crop productivity.
Low levels (50 ppb) of glyphosate have been shown to have significant negative effects on the aquatic invertebrate Daphnia magna [50]. When measured against the U.S. EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 700 ppb, or the Canadian short-term (27,000 ppb) and the long-term (800 ppb) freshwater aquatic standards [51], one quickly sees how the regulatory eco-toxicological risk levels set for glyphosate are orders of magnitude too high.