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Table 1 Description of evaluated predictor variables

From: Development of land use regression models for nitrogen dioxide, ultrafine particles, lung deposited surface area, and four other markers of particulate matter pollution in the Swiss SAPALDIA regions

Source data Variable name(s)a Description Unit Direction of effect Buffer sizes (m)
Building density BUILDINGS_X Total area covered by buildings m2 + 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
Population grid POP_X Population count N(umber) + 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
CORINE Land Cover b LDRES_X Low density residential m2 + 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
HDRES_X High density residential m2 + 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
AIRPORT_X Airport m2 + 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
INDUSTRY_X Industry m2 + 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
NATURAL_X Natural m2 - 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
PORT_X Port m2 + 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
URBGREEN_X Urban green m2 - 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
UGNL_X Urban green and natural land m2 - 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
WATER_X Water m2 +/− 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000
Road network ROADLENGTH_X Total lengths of all roads m + 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
MAJROADLENGTH_X c Total lengths of all major roads m + 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
TRAFLOAD_X Total traffic load of roads (sum of (traffic intensity * length of each segment)) Veh · day−1 · m + 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
TRAFMAJORLOAD_X c Total traffic load of major roads (sum of (traffic intensity * length of each segment)) Veh · day−1 · m + 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
HEAVYTRAFLOAD_X Total heavy traffic load of roads (sum of (traffic intensity * length of each segment)) Veh · day−1 · m + 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000
TRAFNEAR, TRAFMAJOR c, HEAVYTRAFNEAR (Heavy) traffic intensity on the nearest (major) road Veh · day−1 + N/A
INTINVDIST, INTINVMAJDIST c, HEAVYINTINVDIST Traffic on the nearest (major) road * inverse distance Veh · day−1 · m−1 + N/A
INVDIST, MAJINVDIST c Inverse distance to the nearest (major) road m−1 + N/A
DHM Altitude grid ALT, LOG_ALT, SQRT_ALT Altitude, log(altitude) and sqrt(altitude) m - N/A
Dispersion model estimates NO2_2010, PM25_2010, PM10_2010 Pollumap 2010 prediction for NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 μg/m3 + N/A
Area indicator Area_BS, Area_DA, Area_GE, Area_LU, Area_MO, Area_PA, Area_WA Dummy variable for presence of a measurement site in the study areas of Aarau, Basel, Davos, Geneva, Lugano, Montana, Payerne, Wald. The reference is Aarau Not applicable +/− N/A
  1. aThe suffix “X” is replaced by the buffer size in meters to get the full variable name (e.g. BUILDINGS_100 = area covered by buildings in a 100 m buffer); bCORINE classes were defined as previously in the APMOSPHERE [24, 45] and ESCAPE [5, 6, 46] projects; c Where major road is defined as a road with ≥5000 vehicles/24 h