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Table 3 Conceptual Haddon matrix of factors in road traffic fatalities in the setting of adverse weather and road conditions

From: Adverse weather conditions and fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States, 1994-2012




Social environment

Physical environment


Severe weather driving experience and training

Specific adverse weather equipment affecting performance and thus energy transfer (e.g., tire chains)

Transportation infrastructure (e.g., road network) preparedness for adverse weather.

Adverse-weather speed limits

Weather-resilient signage. Road surface preparation (e.g., salt).

Road and bridge design (e.g., drainage capacity)


Ability to perform emergency and evasive maneuvers

Stopping distance. Anti-lock brakes. Vehicle performance characteristics. Safe airbag deployment


Collision barriers


Capacity to withstand adverse environmental and injury exposures

Vehicle crash notification system

Transportation planning and traffic flow management to facilitate emergency medical and safety response

Emergency medical service arrival and transport time.

Feasibility of air transport

  1. Some possible phase-specific factors affected by adverse weather and road conditions. Factors wherein adverse weather conditions are not considered a significant part of the causal pathway, e.g., use of active and passive restraints, are not listed