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Fig. 5 | Environmental Health

Fig. 5

From: Ozone and childhood respiratory disease in three US cities: evaluation of effect measure modification by neighborhood socioeconomic status using a Bayesian hierarchical approach

Fig. 5

Annual mean ED visit rates by neighborhood SES for each ZCTA in each city. Respiratory disease ED rates are reported per 1000 children (5–18 years old) and were calculated for each ZCTA by dividing the annual total number of respiratory disease ED visits by annual estimates of the 5–18 year old population for each year in the study period. Annual ED Rates were then averaged over the study period of each city. ED visit rates for each ZCTA are represented by the “+” symbol and shown in a by percentage (%) of the adult population (≥25 years old) with less than a 12th grade education (% < 12th grade), in b by % of households living below the federal poverty line (% below poverty), and in c by the Neighborhood Deprivation Index (NDI). The solid black line represents local polynomial regression using weighted least squares to fit a line through the data. The dotted gray lines represent the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd quartile values of each SES indicator. In each panel and city, neighborhood SES decreases from left to right. Abbreviations: ED, Emergency Department; NDI, Neighborhood Deprivation Index; RDAS, respiratory disease ED visits; SES, socioeconomic status; ZCTA, ZIP Code Tabulation Area

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