Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Blood Lead Levels Observed Following Shooting Firearms at Shooting ranges

From: Lead exposure at firing ranges—a review

    Blood Lead (μg/dL)    
Activity Firing   Mean (Median*) SD Range    
Type Range Category     Location n Reference
Occupational
  Indoor
   Arsenal Firing Range Workers 37.2 11.7 22–59.6 Taiwan 10 Chau et al. (1995) [80]
   Arsenal Other Workers 13.3 5.6    98  
   Firing Range and Gun Store Employees    19.9–40.7 California, USA 6 CDC (2014) [81]
   Firearms instructor & range cleaning and maintenance 88    New York, USA 1 Fisher-Fischbein et al. (1987) [82]
   Firearm Instructors Before Indoor Training: 4.3%    <20 New York, USA 1 Fischbein et al. (1979) [36]
   Firearm Instructors Before Indoor Training: 82.6%    20–39   19  
   Firearm Instructors Before Indoor Training: 8.7%    40–59   2  
   Firearm Instructors Before Indoor Training: 4.3%    >60   1  
   Firearm Instructors After Indoor Training: 4.3%    <20   1  
   Firearm Instructors After Indoor Training: 52.2%    20–39   12  
   Firearm Instructors After Indoor Training: 34.8%    40–59   8  
   Firearm Instructors After Indoor Training: 8.7%    >60   2  
   Firearms Instructors and Officers: 42%    <40 New York, USA 19 Fischbein (1992) [83]
   Firearms Instructors and Officers: 34%    40–60   15  
   Firearms Instructors and Officers: 24%    >60   11  
   Firearm Instructors 125 15   USA 3 Landrigan et al. (1975) [84]
   Male Police Officers 5   1–18.2 Sweden 75 Löfstedt et al. (1999) [85]
   Female Police Officers 3.7     3  
   Full Time Employee 77    Colorado, USA 1 Novotny et al. (1987) [86]
   Full Time Employee 59     1  
   Full Time Employee 49     1  
   Part Time Employee 41     1  
   Shooting range supervisor 5.8 1.6 2.1–17.3 Republic of Korea 35 Park et al. (2016) [87]
   Professional shooter 11.6 1.9 3.0–34.3   24  
   Shooting range manager 9.5 2.2 2.0–64.0   61  
   All job types 8.6 2.1 2.0–64.0   120  
   Firing Range Instructors 5.5 0.6 4.2–6.7 Sao Paulo, Brazil 20 Rocha et al. (2014) [35]
   Cadets - Before Training 3.3 0.15 3.0–3.6   21  
   Cadets - After Training 18.2 1.5 16–21   21  
   Instructor 1 Before Training 3.6     1  
   Instructor 1 After Training 22.1     1  
   Instructor 2 Before Training 7.7     1  
   Instructor 2 After Training 18.3     1  
   Instructors 19 7   Amman, Jordan 31 Abudhaise et al. (1996) [88]
   Trainees 22.9 4.6    54  
   Controls 2.1 1.4    unknown  
   Police Small Arms Instructors 43.5 6.2 33.1–49.7 England 7 Smith (1976) [89]
   US Coastguard Firearm Instructors - Pre BLL 2.4 1.6 0.9–5.6 Washington, USA 9 Torres (2014) [90]
   US Coastguard Firearm Instructors - Post BLL 2.3 1.2 0.9–4.6   9  
   US Coastguard Firearm Instructors - Pre-Post BLL 2.4 1.4 0.9–5.1   9  
   Police Trainees: Before Training - (1/29/87) 6.0 (6.4*)    Colorado, USA 17 Valway et al. (1989) [45]
   Police Trainees: Training - (3/3/87) 51.1 (51.6*)     17  
   Police Trainees: Training - (3/31/87) 44.3 (43.1*)     17  
   Police Trainees: Training - (5/3/87) 39.5 (40.0*)     17  
   Israeli Defence Soldiers Baseline 10.3 2.3   Israel 29 Vivante et al. (2008) [37]
   Israeli Defence Soldiers Postexposure 18.8 3.6    29  
   Indoor Range Instructors 8.5 7.6   Italy unknown Di Lorenzo et al. (2006) [91]
  Indoor/outdoor
   FBI Instructors 1989 14.6   9–21 Virginia, USA 7 CDC (1996) [65]
   FBI Instructors 1990 13.7   6–27   7  
   FBI Instructors 1991 7.6   <4–12   14  
   FBI Range Techs 1989 16.2   10–24   5  
   FBI Range Techs 1990 10.4   6–14   5  
   FBI Range Techs 1991 13.6   8–28   5  
   US Special Operations Forces - Year 2000 13.90    USA 255 Mancuso et al. (2008) [92]
   US Special Operations Forces - Year 2005 6.80     
   Adult Target Shooters - Occupational - 21.6%    <25 New York, USA 26 Gelberg and DePersis (2009) [93]
   Adult Target Shooters - Occupational - 50.8%    25–39   61  
   Adult Target Shooters - Occupational - 25%    40–59   30  
   Adult Target Shooters - Occupational - 2.5%    60+   3  
  Outdoor
   Range Instructors 6.7 5.3   Italy unknown Di Lorenzo et al. (2006) [91]
   Firing Range Instructors Before Training 41 10 28–66 California, USA 7 Goldberg et al. (1991) [38]
   Firing Range Instructors After Training 45 14 28–70   7  
   Firing Range Instructors 6 Months After Training 31 5 28–38   7  
   Soldiers Before Basic Training <0.29    Israel 22 Greenberg et al. (2016) [94]
   Soldiers After Basic Training 1.17 1.73    22  
   Soldiers After Advanced Training 3.92 1.99    22  
   Body guards 8.10 2.70 3.0–14.4 Mexico 26 Madrid et al. (2016) [41]
   Instructors 7.60 1.40 6.6–8.6   2  
   Shooting Range Caretakers 40.65 15.63 29.6–51.7   2  
   Administrative 4.20 1.20 2.7–6.5   9  
   Security 4.90 1.20 3.0–7.3   9  
   Services 6.50 3.60 3.1–14.2   10  
   Elite Group 6.40 2.60 4.2–11.4   6  
   All Categories 7.60 6.80 2.7–51.7   64  
   Howitzer Operators - Baseline 5.5   4.33–6.73 Oklahoma, USA 20 Smart et al. (1994) [40]
   Howitzer Operators - After 3rd Exercise 20.1   17.94–22.44   20  
   Howitzer Operators - 8 Weeks After Exposure 11.9   9.92–14.02   12  
   Shooting Instructor #1 Non-Jacketed bullets 24.02    Virginia, USA 1 Tripathi et al. (1991) [46]
   Shooting Instructor #1 Copper Jacketed Bullets 21.95     1  
   Shooting Instructor #2 Non-Jacketed bullets 14.08     1  
   Shooting Instructor #2 Copper Jacketed Bullets 13.04     1  
   Outdoor Firing Range Police Cadets: Baseline - Day 0 6 1.1 5–8 Virginia, USA 7 Tripathi et al. (1989) [9]
   Outdoor Firing Range Police Cadets: Day 1 6 1.0 5–8   7  
   Outdoor Firing Range Police Cadets: Day 2 11 2.1 7–14   7  
   Outdoor Firing Range Police Cadets: Day 5 15 5.4 9–26   7  
   Outdoor Firing Range Police Cadets: Day 69 9 2.8 6–14   7  
Non-Occupational
  Indoor
   High School Shooting Coach 44    Alaska, USA 1 CDC (2005) [56]
   Firing Range A (School Range) - Students Aged 15–17 years 24.3   21.0–31.0   7  
   Firing Range B (Commercial) - Students Aged 13–16 years 2.1     8  
   Firing Range C (Volunteer Run) - Students Aged 15–19 years 18.5   5–37   24  
   Firing Range D (School Range) - Students Aged 14–17 years 8.9   3.0–14.0   7  
   Firing Range E (Volunteer Run) - Students Aged 7–17 years 7.6   2–13   20  
   Shooter 9.2*   2.7–52.1 Germany 129 Demmeler et al. (2009) [44]
   Shooter: Q1 200 rounds/month 8.7*   2.8–31.4   27  
   Shooter: Q2 200–399 rounds/month 9*   2.7–31.5   28  
   Shooter: Q3 400–680 rounds/month 11.8*   2.9–37.5   29  
   Shooter: Q4 > 680 rounds/month 13.8*   3.7–52.1   23  
   Airguns 3.3*   1.8–12.7   20  
   Airguns and .22 caliber 8.7*   1.4–17.2   15  
   .22 lr bore & large caliber 10.7*   2.7–37.5   51  
   Large caliber handgun 10*   2.8–32.6   32  
   IPSC (International Practical Shooting Federation) 19.2*   3.2–52.1   11  
   Adult Target Shooters - Both Occupational & Non-Occupational - 1.5%   <25 New York, USA 2 Gelberg and DePersis (2009) [93]
   Adult Target Shooters - Both Occupational & Non-Occupational - 71.3%   25–39   92  
   Adult Target Shooters - Both Occupational & Non-Occupational - 20.9%   40–59   27  
   Adult Target Shooters - Both Occupational & Non-Occupational - 6.2%   60+   8  
   Small Bore Rifle Shooter - End of Indoor Season 54.65    New Zealand 52 George et al. (1993) [39]
   Small Bore Rifle Shooter - Preseason Following Year 33.13     37  
   Shooting Range #2 10.5 7   South Africa 30 Mathee et al. (2017) [15]
   Shooting Range #3 16.1 9.8    17  
   Shooting Range #4 19.2 16.3    14  
   Child (Age 1 year) - “index case” 46    USA 1 Moore (1995) [95]
   Mother - (Age 25 years) 11     1  
   Father - (Age 25 years) 15     1  
   Sibling - (Age 4) 14     1  
   Sibling - (Age 2) 19     1  
   Cousin - (Age 6) 28     1  
   Cousin - (Age 8) 31     1  
   Aunt - (Age 37) 30     1  
   Child (Age 1 year.) “index case”: 3 Months After Intervention 19     1  
   Mother - (Age 25 years): 3 Months After Intervention 8     1  
   Father - (Age 25 years): 3 Months After Intervention Not Measured     1  
   Sibling - (Age 4): 3 Months After Intervention 11     1  
   Sibling - (Age 2): 3 Months After Intervention 12     1  
   Cousin- (Age 6): 3 Months After Intervention 13     1  
   Cousin - (Age 8): 3 Months After Intervention 13     1  
   Aunt - (Age 37): 3 Months After Intervention 13     1  
   Indoor Shooting Range Employee Spouse 6    Colorado, USA 1 Novotny et al. (1987) [86]
   Indoor Shooting Range Employee Spouse 11     1  
   Indoor Shooting Range Employee Spouse 6     1  
   Recreational Shooters 29*   24–45 Germany 7 Ochsmann et al. (2009) [6]
   Competitive Marksmen - Adolescents Aged 14–16 years 21.3   18–28 Massachusetts, USA 4 Shannon (1999) [57]
   Shooters before indoor shooting season 10.6*   3.2–17.6 Sweden 22 Svensson et al. (1992) [96]
   Shooters after indoor shooting season 13.8*   6.9–28.8   22  
   Airgun Shooters before indoor shooting season 9.1*   4.7–17.9   21  
   Airgun Shooters after indoor shooting season 8.4*   2.0–22.2   21  
   Archers before shooting season 6.1*   2.7–9.2   13  
   Archers after shooting season 5.6*   3.1–8.7   13  
   Shooter: shot 600 rounds 3 times per week for past 4 months 43.5    United Kingdom 1 White (1996) [97]
  Indoor/Outdoor
   Shooter 45 6.3 35–47 Connecticut, USA 6 Cook et al. (2015) [98]
   Irregular Frequency Indoor and Outdoor Shooter 6.7    Australia 1 Gulson et al. (2002) [99]
   Archers who also shot guns 7.8 10.26   South Africa 15 Mathee et al. (2017) [15]
   Gun shooters only (excluding archers and employees) 12.13 10.18    62  
   Gun shooters who also work at the shooting range 16.3 7.83    8  
   All gun shooters (including archers and employees) 11.9 10.15    85  
   Less than monthly 8.4 5.5    23  
   > monthly, but less than weekly 11.8 8.7    35  
   > weekly, but < 3 times per week 14.3 15.2    21  
   >3 times per week 12.5 9.7    7  
   Pistol Sport Shooters 10.76 8.28   Helsinki, Finland 20 Asa-Mäkitaipale et al. (2009) [42]
  Outdoor
   Archery Range 4.5 2.7   South Africa 14 Mathee et al. (2017) [15]
   Shooting Range #1 7 4.3    12  
   Practised archery only 3.3 2.25    31