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Table 4 Result of the multiple logistic regression analysis assessing the association between types of indoor cooking fuel and the risk of different adverse birth and health outcomes

From: Household air pollution from cooking and risk of adverse health and birth outcomes in Bangladesh: a nationwide population-based study

Outcome variable Place of use solid fuel p
No indoor solid fuel Use indoor solid fuel
Under five mortality
 n (%) 741 (4.5) 134 (5.5)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.17 (0.97–1.43) 0.11
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.11 (0.91–1.35) 0.29
Neonatal mortality
 n (%) 503 (3.1) 97 (4.1)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.28 (1.02–1.61) <0.05
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.23 (0.97–1.55) 0.08
Infant mortality
 n (%) 667 (4.1) 124 (5.2)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.23 (1.00–1.50) 0.05
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.15 (0.94–1.42) 0.17
Acute respiratory infection
 n (%) 2318 (14.8) 347 (15.2)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.26 (1.11–1.45) <0.05
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.19 (1.06–1.32) 0.01
Low birth weight
 n (%) 1865 (17.6) 270 (21.2)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.47 (1.26–1.70) <0.01
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 1.33 (1.14–1.56) <0.01
Pregnancy complication
 n (%) 4718 (55.4) 569 (49.8)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.72 (0.64–1.06) 0.10
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 0.71 (0.63–1.03) 0.07
Cesarean delivery
 n (%) 2196 (15.3) 281 (13.1)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.80 (0.61–1.02) 0.06
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.76–1.04) 0.12
Stillbirth
 n (%) 391 (1.7) 67 (1.3)  
 OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.12 (0.86–1.47) 0.39
 aOR (95% CI) 1.00 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.78
  1. n frequency, aOR adjusted odds ratio (controlled for maternal age, education, place of residence, region, socio-economic status, breastfeeding and child sex)