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Table 2 Characteristics of children in the present study (N = 304)

From: Prenatal and postnatal bisphenol A exposure and social impairment in 4-year-old children

Variables Mean ± SD, N (%) P-value
Overall Boys (n = 160) Girls (n = 144)
Child’s age (months) 47.7 ± 2.1 47.7 ± 2.0 47.8 ± 2.1 0.4569
Body mass index 15.7 ± 1.3 15.8 ± 1.2 15.7 ± 1.3 0.4508
Birth weight (kg) 3.3 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 0.4 3.2 ± 0.4 0.0274
Feeding     0.8972
 Breast feeding only 77 (34.5) 38 (31.7) 39 (37.9)  
 Breast and bottle feeding 124 (55.6) 73 (60.8) 51 (49.5)  
 Bottle feeding only 22 (9.9) 9 (7.5) 13 (12.6)  
Place of childcare     0.5199
 Home 177 (65.8) 94 (64.0) 83 (68.0)  
 Daycare or other 92 (34.2) 53 (36.1) 39 (32.0)  
Second hand smoke exposure     0.0477
 No 221 (72.7) 115 (71.9) 106 (73.6)  
 Yes 83 (27.3) 45 (28.1) 38 (26.4)  
Canned food or drink     0.0011
  < 1 per week 259 (85.2) 126 (78.8) 133 (92.4)  
  ≥ 1 per week 45 (14.8) 34 (21.3) 11 (7.6)  
Instant rice     0.1246
  < 1 per week 300 (98.7) 156 (97.5) 144 (100.0)  
  ≥ 1 per week 4 (1.3) 4 (2.5)   
Use of plastic dishes in the microwave oven     0.8831
 No 247 (81.3) 129 (80.6) 118 (81.9)  
 Yes 57 (18.8) 31 (19.4) 26 (18.1)  
BPA at 4 years of age (μg/L) 3.2 ± 5.0 3.2 ± 3.1 3.3 ± 6.6 0.8144
Creatinine (μg/L) 72.1 ± 34.9 74.9 ± 35.3 69.1 ± 34.3 0.1483
Creatinine-adjusted BPA at 4 years of age (μg/g creatinine) 4.9 ± 10.8 4.3 ± 3.6 5.5 ± 15.3 0.3366
K-SCQ- Total 4.3 ± 3.1 5.0 ± 3.2 3.6 ± 2.7 0.0001
K-SCQ- Social interaction 1.1 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 1.3 0.9 ± 1.0 0.0083
K-SCQ- Communication 1.7 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.4 1.6 ± 1.3 0.0956
K-SCQ- Behavior Patterns 1.4 ± 1.7 1.7 ± 1.7 1.1 ± 1.5 0.0014
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, BPA bisphenol A, K-SCQ Korean version of the Social Communication Questionnaire