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Table 2 Data extraction showing methods used in the included studies

From: Psychosocial and demographic predictors of adherence and non-adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems: a systematic review

Author Publication Study design Setting Sample size Sample Sample demographics
Evans et al. [26] JA CSS Los Angeles
Twice: Spring-Autumn 1982
N = 1002 (~n = 500 participants in each period) Residents of Los Angeles Not reported. The sample compared favourably to the 1980 U.S. census, with <5% error in gender and ethnic distribution (with more females and Caucasians) and <1% error in age)
Hartill [24] R CSS Southampton, UK 2011, 2014 In 2011, N = 74; in 2014, n = 52 Air Alert system users Not reported
Johnson [27] JA QES Philadelphia
Jul 1998- Feb 1999
N ~ 1000 People awaiting for jury duty in city courts Age = 20–81 range; Gender: female = 60% (N = 606); Ethnicity: White female = (n = 286), non-white females (n = 320)
Johnson [28] JA QES Philadelphia
Jul 1998- Feb 1999
N ~ 1000 People awaiting for jury duty in city courts Age (M) = 42.8 years (SD = 12.2, range 18–81); Gender: female = 60%; Ethnicity (White = 49%, African America n = 44%, Asian = 3%); Health: self-reported respiratory problem = 29%; had children at home with respiratory disease = 20%.
Kentucky Health Issues Poll [34] R CSS Kentucky
Sep -Oct 2012
1680 Kentucky residents Age (groups) =18–29 years = 22% (n = 366); 30–45 = 32% (n = 531); 46–64 = 29% (n = 481); ≥ 65 = 17% (n = 272); Gender: female 52% (n = 875); Ethnicity: African American =7% (n = 115); White = 88% (n = 1486); Health: Self-reported Chronic Disease: (n = 902)
Kilbane-Dawe et al. [35] WP CSS Croydon, UK
Jun 2006 & Sep 2006
N = 168 users completed 382 questionnaires Service users of the alert system Not reported
Licskai et al. [39] JA Pre-Post T Windsor, Ontario
Jul & Sep 2010
N = 22 Convenience sample of adult users of the Primary Care Asthma Program Age (M) = 47 years (SD = 12); Gender: female = 82% (n = 18); Health: All asthmatics; Currently smoking: 18% (n = 4). Taking controller medication: (82%) n = 18; ICS alone (14%) n = 3; Combined therapy (ICS + LABA) = (68%) n = 15; Taking rescue medication (past 2 weeks) (68%) n = 15; Rescue medication dose/day, mean (±SD) = 0.92 (±1.53).
Lyons et al. [36] JA QES, R & P South Wales
May 2012- Aug 2014
N = 179 intervention group (IG) and N = 1214 for control group (CG) Asthmatics, COPD or coronary heart disease patients from local general practices Age (Modal age group) = 65–74 years in the IG = 33.5% (n = 60) and CG = 18.1% (n = 220), χ2 = 46.3, p < 0.001; Gender: female = IG = 51.4% (n = 92), CG = 48% (n = 583); Health: all with respiratory condition
Mak, et al. [43] CP CSS Hong Kong
2009
Total N = 846. n = 216 (from general public) & n = 640 (from people working on busy roads) General public Not reported
Mansfield et al. [33] R CSS United States
Aug 3, 2000 to Sep 13, 2000
N = 6106 (used for analyses) General public Age (M) = 45 (n = 53 missing); Gender: male = 49% (n = 38 missing); Ethnicity: White = 81%; Black/ African American =11%, American Indian =2%, Asian =3%, Other =4%; (n = 338 missing); Health: Self-reported poor health =3%; (n = 22 missing).
Laube [38] T CSS London, UK
Jun-Jul 2012
N = 70 LondonAir mobile phone app users Age (M) = 41.11 years (range 18–67 years); Gender: female = 32.9% (n = 23); Health: self-reported respiratory/coronary problems = 44.3%
McDermott et al. [25] JA CSS Salt Lake, US
Jan & Sep 2003
N = 208 used for analyses. n = 110 (parents from asthma cohort), n = 98 (parents from non-asthma cohort) Parents taking their child to a paediatric asthma specialty clinic or attending a general paediatrics clinic Child Age (M) = 10 years (asthmatics) 9 years (non-asthmatics), p = 0.21; Health: in the asthma cohort, 88% (96/110) had a child using a controller inhaler, and 64% (70) reported that their child had a prior A&E visit or hospitalization for asthma; 25% were classified as having moderate or severe asthma (based on NIH Guidelines).
Radisic, et al. [41] JA QS Hamilton, Ontario,
Oct 2012 - Apr 2015
N = 50 (n = 6 interview participants (Int.); n = 44 focus group participant (FG)) Overall = 6 health care providers, 16 parents, 13 elderly, 15 with respiratory conditions. Age (groups) (FG): 18–34 = 29% (n = 13), 35–54 = 11% (n = 5), ≥55 = 60% (n = 26); Gender: female (Int.) = 83% (n = 5), in the FG = 77% (n = 34); Health (Int.): with respiratorycondition = 33.3% (n = 2); FG: with respiratory condition: 34% (n = 15).
Radisic et al. [40] JA CSS Hamilton, Ontario, Jun - Oct 2012 N = 707 General public Age (groups) 18–34 = 25% (n = 174); 35–54 = 45% (n = 318); ≥ 55 = 30% (n = 215); Gender: female n = 479 (68%); missing = 3% (n = 24); Health: self-reported respiratory condition: 25% (n = 179); Missing: 1% (n = 3); cardiovascular condition: 9% (n = 63); Missing: 1% (n = 8).
Reams et al. [29] JA CSS Upper Industrial CorridorLouisiana 2011 N = 64 Attendees of 3 East Baton Rouge Metropolitan Council meetings Age: ≥50 age group = 80%; Gender: female = 54%.
Semenza et al. [30] JA CSS Portland, OR and Houston, TX, Summers 2005–2006 N = 1962 (n = 1254 were residents of Portland, and n = 708 residents of Houston) Residents of two US cities (Data reported for Portland and Houston respectively) Age (M) = 52 years (SD =16.08) & 48.4 (SD = 16.28), p = .001; Gender: female = 63.9% & 63.6%, p = 0.659; Ethnicity: White 90.7% & 60.5%; Black or African American 1.6% & 17.2%; Asian 2.4% & 5.4%; Hispanic/Latino 2.6% & 13.9%; Other 2.7% & 3% (p < 0.0010); Health: 16.6% & 20.7% (p = .021) had someone in the household with a medical condition.
Skov et al. [15] JA CSS Copenhagen area, Apr 1989 N = 877 (considered for analysis) Adult residents in Copenhagen (also people from a league for lung-diseased patients) Age (groups) = above 55 years (in the patient league sample) = 75%; above 55 years (in the population sample) = 27%; Health: people with lung disease: n = 192.
Smallbone [37] R CSS London and other locations in the UK 2010 N = 411 online surveys. Response rates ranged from 259 to 411 General public Age (n = 396) = age group ≤24 = 8% (n = 31); ≥65 age = 7% (n = 27). Gender: female = 62% (n = 244) (t = 24.9, p < 0.01). Ethnicity: white/white British = 92% (n = 349/381); Asian, black/black British: 1% each, Other: 6%. Health (n = 131 provided 150 responses): 60% (n = 90) reported asthma, 29% other respiratory illness, 11% heart condition.
Stieb et al. [42] JA CSS Four areas in Canada 1994 N = 1474 (New Brunswick n = 405; Toronto n = 413; Norfolk n = 256; Vancouver n = 400) Residents of four areas of Canada, following a smog forecast Age (M) = New Brunswick =45 years (SD = 17); Toronto =42 (17); Norfolk =46 (16); Vancouver =41 (15); Gender: female: New Brunswick: 61%; Toronto: 57%; Norfolk: 57%; Vancouver: 52%; Health: individual with heart or lung disease in the household: New Brunswick =38%; Toronto =37%; Norfolk =38%; Vancouver =30%.
Sugerman et al. [31] JA CSS San Diego
May-Jun 2008
N = 1802 Community of San Diego present during wildfire Age (group) (n = 1689 considered): 18–34: 15.8% (n = 266); 35–54: 46.5% (n = 785); ≥55–64: 36.8% (n = 638); Gender: female: 49.6% (n = 855), (n = 1724 considered). Ethnicity: non-Hispanic White: 65.3% (n = 1090); Hispanic: 22.1% (n = 369); Asian: 5% (n = 84); Non-Hispanic Black: 4.1% (n = 68); Other: 3.5% (n = 58). Health: asthmatics: 15.1% (n = 272); COPD/emphysema: 2.7% (n = 48); Heart failure: 2.9% (n = 53).
Wen et al. [32] JA CSS Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, & Wisconsin 2005 N = 33,888: for the relevant questions response rate ranged from n = 13,979 to n = 28,276. Residents of six US states Health (N = 28,693 considered): self-reported asthma (n = 4295). Other demographics were not reported for the overall sample, but only for people who changed behaviour.
  1. CP Conference Proceeding, CSS Cross-sectional survey, ICS Inhaled corticosteroid, ICS+ LABA Combination therapy (ICS + Long-acting beta agonist), JA Journal article, Pre-Post T One-group pre- post-test (no randomisation or control group), QES R & P Retrospective & prospective data linkage cohort study, QES quasi-experimental study cross-sectional study, QS Qualitative study, R Report, T Thesis, WP Working paper