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Table 2 Attributable risks (95% CI) for the development of symptoms among water recreators, by activity

From: Estimate of incidence and cost of recreational waterborne illness on United States surface waters

  Incidental-Contact: Fishinga Other Incidental-Contactb Swimming/Wadingc
  Probability of illness if exposed water/fish/bait
(95% CI)
Probability of illness if unexposed
(95% CI)
Attributable Risk
(95% CI)
Probability of illness if exposed to water
(95% CI)
Probability of illness if unexposed
(95% CI)
Attributable Risk
(95% CI)
Probability of illness if exposed to water
(95% CI)
Probability of illness if unexposed
(95% CI)
Attributable Risk
(95% CI)
AGI 0.053
(0.039, 0.065)
0.038
(0.031, 0.046)
0.015
(−0.003, 0.030)
0.040
(0.036, 0.046)
0.034
(0.028, 0.040)
0.006
(−0.002, 0.014)
0.040
(0.036, 0.043)
0.025
(0.022, 0.029)
0.015
(0.010, 0.020)
Respiratory --d --d 0.182
(0.171, 0.192)
0.210
(0.196, 0.226)
--e 0.054
(0.050–0.058)
0.049
(0.044, 0.054)
0.005
(−0.002, 0.011)
Eye --d --d 0.081
(0.074, 0.088)
0.073
(0.063, 0.083)
0.008
(−0.004, 0.019)
0.029
(0.027, 0.032)
0.029
(0.026, 0.032)
--e
Ear --d --d 0.017
(0.014, 0.020)
0.017
(0.011, 0.020)
--e 0.016
(0.014, 0.018)
0.012
(0.010, 0.015)
0.004
(−0.0001, 0.006)
Skin 0.087
(0.070, 0.102)
0.095
(0.084, 0.107)
--e 0.083
(0.075, 0.090)
0.093
(0.082, 0.104)
--e 0.029
(0.027, 0.032)
0.023
(0.020, 0.027)
0.006
(0.002, 0.010)
  1. a Comparing those who fish to the unexposed group (non-water recreators) in CHEERS
  2. b Comparing those who engage in incidental-contact water recreation (kayaking, canoeing, boating, rowing) to unexposed group (non-water recreators) in CHEERS
  3. c Comparing those who have any contact with beach water (swimmers/waders) to the unexposed group (non-water recreators) in NEEAR
  4. d Anglers not expected to have excess risk of respiratory, eye, ear, or skin illness due to nature of fishing exposure
  5. e No AR calculated, since no excess of illness among the exposed compared to unexposed