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Table 3 Mediation analysis of the association between contemporaneous greenness (at 250-m buffer) and perceived stressa

From: Association of neighborhood greenness with self-perceived stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in older U.S adults

Mediator Path E➔O (direct effect) Path E➔M Path M➔O Path E➔M➔O (indirect effect) Percent mediatedb
History of respiratory diseases − 0.169 (0.055)** 0.021 (0.009)** 0.295 (0.081)** 0.006 (0.003)** −3.80%
Physical activity −0.138 (0.055)** 0.124 (0.035)** −0.197 (0.020)** −0.025 (0.007)** 15.12%
Social support −0.155 (0.055)** 0.037 (0.028) −0.190 (0.025)** −0.007 (0.005) 4.37%
Loneliness −0.146 (0.053)** −0.050 (0.042) 0.319 (0.016)** −0.016 (0.014) 9.93%
  1. aThe total effect of the association between greenness and perceived stress was −0.162 (−0.271, −0.054). Both direct and indirect effect was expressed as the mean difference of the perceived stress per 0.25 unit increment in greenness, in the primary multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, questionnaire year and season, and region, education attainment, 3-day moving average of temperature and 60-months moving average of PM2.5. * p<0.10; ** p<0.05.
  2. bBold texts refer to the statistically significant mediation effect according to Sobel test (pindirect <0.05)
  3. Abbreviations: E refers to exposure (i.e., greenness), O refers to outcome (i.e., perceived stress), M refers to mediator